Tuesday, May 21, 2019

QOTD: Making Your Own Narrative

The CCW-shut-up-and-call-your-lawyer group in essence allows the narrative to be written by others and have no control at all what it defines things as. We [...] choose to write our own narratives. And make no mistake...the narrative is written the moment you have fired your last shots. 

Truth has very little to do with it. 

It has more to do with who has the most compelling and believable story first.

Let that sink into the brain.

--Gabe Suarez

Monday, May 20, 2019

Idaho Free Fishing Day Is June 8, 2019

Every year, Idaho has a "free fishing" day where residents and non-residents, of any age, can fish without having to purchase licenses. Other restrictions, like limits and tackle restrictions, still remain in effect, however. (Source: KTVB.com)

A Monday Medley Of Videos

"The Squad in the Attack: Hasty Attack"--Max Velocity Tactical (29 min.)








"Shōkaku and Cavalla"--The History Guy (15 min.)
The story of how an American submarine sunk one of Japan's largest aircraft carriers.




Saturday, May 18, 2019

May 18, 2019 -- A Quick Run Around the Web

"How To Use Your Vehicle To Get Out Of The Danger Zone"--Active Self Protection (6 min.)

      In the gun-carrying world, the cringe-worthy eraser phrase is that you need to [all together now!] “dress around the gun!” This is doubly amusing, because of the cognitive dissonance with two other ultra-popular tropes:
          Nobody pays attention anyways, so it doesn’t matter if I’m printing
      and
        Be the grey man.
               …So which one is it? You either need to put forth some effort to blend into your surroundings, and not draw undue attention to yourself, or people are so oblivious that unless I’m wearing a clown suit and carrying an RPG, I’m good to go!
          I'm looking forward to more articles on this topic, which is of interest because I work in an office environment, and I also carry at church. Frankly, office carry requires compromises, and many times that is a smaller handgun and/or carrying off body.  
                 ... But suppose you are being attacked by people on foot, and you manage to gain the very temporary sanctuary of your automobile?
                  It may not be a fortress, but your car is still an escape avenue and a mobile battering ram, a weapon deadlier than any gun. Innocent people have died when they were surrounded by fanatical rioters and panicked. 
                  The Miami riots occurred while I was with several hundred cops at the National Law Enforcement Parade in Rhode Island. We watched it on our hotel TVs in the evening, we discussed it, and we agreed that none of us would be pulled out our cars and stomped to death.  
                We would have driven clear, using our cars as mobile guided bludgeons. Even if they tried to pick our sedan up with ten sets of arms, we would have accelerated when the first hands touched the vehicle, and would have driven through the mass of people who wanted to kill us and our innocent passengers with absolutely no compunction. 
                If you ever have to do that, order your passengers to lie down sideways on their seats and be ready to duck down yourself; an automobile will hit a standing man in his legs, and he could be catapulted right through your windshield with enough force that his corpse could kill you by its sheer impact. 
                 Most of you have never seen what happens to a pedestrian hit by a fast-moving car. :You are talking--no exaggeration--about literal dismemberment and decapitation and internal human organs that burst out of the body from the pressure of a 3,000 pound vehicle's wheel rolling over them for a fraction of a second. 
                 You won't see that, though. If your life and the lives of your children in the backseat are on the line, you'll just drive, feeling the bumps through the steering wheel (it feels a lot harder than you'd think) and you'll keep driving. "Steer for the open sea," and head for the biggest, nearest open roadway where you can put some speed and get away from the nightmare.
          He continues with some examples of tactics applicable to someone trying to attack you when or just after you got into your vehicle. But the same basic principles apply: your vehicle is not a fortress, but it is a battering ram.
                By the way, although I was a young kid at the time of the 1980 Miami riots, I watched some of the news accounts of it. One that impressed me was film of an incident where a man was pulled from his car by rioters, who beat him, left him lying in the road, and drove over him with his own car. It appeared to me that one of his arms was torn off, but it may have just been severely broken/dislocated. 
               I did, once, get caught in a situation where a crowd had gathered and would not let me and my vehicle pass. I was stupid and young, so rather than think of some way to peacefully diffuse the situation, I backed up about 200 feet, revved the engine long and hard, and then accelerated at them. Needless to say, they scattered and I got through without any injury to anyone. 
              However, it reminds me a tale that related to me by someone I knew in college. He was driving down a rural highway in northern Idaho. At that time, the area was much more sparsely settled than it is now. And, for some reason, it attracted a mixture of, shall we say, unusual types of people: from hard core survivalists and white separatists, to hippies living in communes and, pertinent to this story, witches covens. In any event, this guy taking this road late at night when he saw people standing on the road. He slowed and saw that everyone on the group was dressed in black hoods and robes. Panicked he sped up, and actually struck at least one person. He immediately drove to the nearest sheriff's office and he and the sheriff drove back to the spot. Although there was damage to the vehicle, there was nobody at the scene and no one ever reported anything to the sheriff. Was the guy pulling my leg? Maybe. But if he was, he was good story teller.
          •  Good news for reloaders: "Federal Premium Sets the Hydra-Shok Bullet Free – Now Sold as a Reloading Component"--The Firearm Blog. Many ammunition manufacturers are reluctant to distribute their premium bullets for use by reloaders. However, a few months ago, Speer began releasing their Gold Dot bullets for sale to reloaders. It appears that Federal has decided to go the same way. Hornady has long sold its better lines of bullets to reloaders.
          • Juxtaposition this:
          • "Excise Tax Payments Show Continued Downturn in Firearm Sales"--The Truth About Guns. As you probably know, sales of firearms and ammunition includes a federal excise tax of 10 or 11% which goes toward conservation programs. This article reports that the "2018 fourth quarter taxes were down almost 8% over the fourth quarter of ’17. On an annualized basis, the 2018 tax total was 2.4% less than 2017." Of course, as the author points out, this is in comparison to the go-go years under the Obama Administration, and gun sales are still healthy.
          How to reconcile these two articles? Well, there is the obvious fact that the tax payments are from a past period, and the April NICS numbers represent an improving economy and/or people spending tax refunds. Alternatively, and I suspect this may also play a role, is that we are currently seeing some very low prices on firearms. So, while the aggregate volume of sales may be the same or higher, the dollar value of those sales may be slightly less.
          Ankle holsters won't work with just any pair of pants. Trousers need to be cut a bit longer than normal or not only will everyone see that your socks don't match, they'll know you have a gun strapped to your leg. Trouser legs also need to be cut wide. This helps you access the handgun and keeps it from printing.
          I actually thought some of the comments were of more value than the article, however. For instance, one of the comments read:
          The problem with ankle holsters is gravity. Your ankle is tapered the wrong way (big on top, little on bottom), and unless you're extremely careful your gun can drag your holster down to where it's resting on your foot. The best ankle holster I ever found was the Milwaukee Legster, which had an extension that went around your calf under the knee, where your leg is tapered the right way. Naturally, they are no longer made, but similar ones are. 
          I haven't used an ankle carry holster, but this sounds correct because it is similar to an issue I had when experimenting with a forearm sheath for a knife. Pulling the knife would generally pull the sheath forward, and at times, with the arm dangling down, the sheath would slide down my arm and allow the knife hilt to show. 
          • Groan: "Product Preview: Browning Hell's Canyon BTU-WD Hunting Clothing"--American Rifleman. This may be a nice product, I don't know. But the reason I linked to it is that its named after Hell's Canyon, but the camouflage pattern doesn't match anything you would actually find in Hell's Canyon. 
          • "Last Cartridge Of An Empire: .303 British"--Shooting Sports USA. An overview of the .303 cartridge, including a bit of history, a look at what ammo is currently available, and some ideas for reloading. I liked the photograph showing what cordite (one of the early smokeless powders) looked like--its like pieces of noodle rather than the small grains that are used today.
          • I didn't even know this was a sport: "Kenda Lenseigne Wins Sixth Cowboy Mounted Shooting Championship"--Shooting Sports USA
          • "Carrying Handguns While Hiking: Pros vs. Cons"--NRA Family. The primary cons are unhelpful laws, weight and comfort (or lack thereof), while the pros are defense against people or animals. Even before I got a CCL, I always carried when in the woods, and the reason I did so was because I had read of some rapes and murders that had occurred in a national park. 
          • Related: Here is a good video from vlogger Homemade Wonderlust entitled "Do You Need a Gun on the Appalachian Trail?" (15 min.) that discusses the pros and cons of carrying a firearm on a through hike of the Appalachian Trail, including a discussion of the laws concerning carrying a firearm through the various states. She also discusses some other items for self-defense. The long and short of it, though, is that if you are going to carry a firearm through many of the states, you will have to do so illegally. 
                 In other words, the firearms-related homicide rate dropped by 36% in the last 25 years for which we have data. Rates don’t tell the whole story; the total population grew by more than 99 million people from 1980 to 2017 and the number of firearms-related homicides decreased by 958.
                  Let’s look at the specific wording used in a recent article supporting gun control. “In 2017, the United States had the highest rate of firearm fatalities since 1996.” This statement is specifically crafted to make a dramatic point. The rate of all firearms-related fatalities in 1996 was lower than it was in the previous 15 years, and the rate was lower every year from 1997 through 2016. The data tell a clear story, even in the presence of a recent and moderate increase. Perhaps more importantly, the data shows that suicide is increasing as a percentage of all firearms-related fatalities.
              And, thanks to Australia's gun ban, we know that banning firearms only has a small and temporary impact on suicides, and no long term impact on reducing suicide rates.
              But then the claim makes no sense.  My youngest son had absolutely no complaints about his weaponry when he deployed to Iraq, not did he when he came home.  He was quite pleased with the lethality of the 5.56mm round in CQB and urban combat (MOUT).  He used both his SAW and an M4, and actually both during room clearing operations.
              The thing to keep in mind is that shot placement is important, even when using rifles.
              • So the  CoTCCC recently approved several new tourniquets for use. Greg Ellifritz is the process of acquiring and testing these new tourniquets, and has initial thoughts about several of them here. Although he hasn't tested all of the new models, he notes that the ones he has tested are great for applying on other people, but he still prefers the CAT for self application.
              • A loyal reader recommended the following article: "How to Build a decent Wilderness Survival Kit"--m40survival.com. This is a well written article. The author has a large photograph of his kit, with each item numbered. He then discusses each item in further detail below the photograph. I also like he explains why he chose certain items and didn't choose other items (for example, he omits matches because for the same amount of room for a half dozen matches he can fit in a small Bic lighter). Check it out.

              Even though this firearm was only just released to the public a few weeks ago, there are already a fair number of videos and written reviews of it. I selected this one out of many because the author indicated that he had done accuracy tests using a Ransom Rest. Very few professional gun writers seem willing to drop the $500 or $600 for such a rest, so this caught my attention. He reported that his best group was 1/2-inch groups at 25 yards using the Wolf target ammo, and worst was a 1-1/8-inch group using some Remington bulk ammunition.


              • I've been corresponding with a reader about the Ebola and measles outbreak, and he mused about a terrorist organization attempting to genetically engineer a biological weapon. It reminded me of an incident reported in 2009 concerning al Qaeda terrorists in Algeria that had died of the plague. The Homeland Security News Wire reported in January 2009:
                    40 al-Qaeda members died after being exposed to the plague during a biological weapons test; test took place in cave hideouts in Tizi Ouzou province, 150 kilometres east of the Algerian capital Algiers 

              * * *
                   Peter Goodspeed writes in the National Post that the very day Barack Obama was sworn in as president, warning Americans “our nation is at war against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred,” there were reports an al-Qaeda affiliate recently abandoned a training camp in Algeria after forty terrorists died from being exposed to the plague during a biological weapons test. The report, which first surfaced in the British tabloid The Sun, says members of al-Qaeda in the Land of the Maghreb (AQLIM) hurriedly abandoned their cave hideouts in Tizi Ouzou province, 150 kilometres east of the Algerian capital Algiers, after being exposed to plague bacteria.
                      The newspaper said they apparently became infected while experimenting with biological weapons. Algerian security forces discovered the body of a dead terrorist alongside a road near the abandoned hideout.
                       U.S. intelligence officials, speaking anonymously with Eli Lake of the Washington Times on Tuesday, could only confirm the sudden base closure after an unconventional weapons test went wrong. The officials said they intercepted an urgent communication in early January between the AQLIM leadership and al-Qaeda’s top leaders in the tribal region of Pakistan. The Algerian terrorists said they were abandoning and sealing off a training area after a leak of a chemical or biological substance.
                  I've never been able to find out more about this incident other than the initial reports. I've discussed the black plague in many posts, including this one where I outlined some of the Soviet/Russian attempts to weaponize it:
                  (a) In 1986, a Soviet scientist, Sergei Popov, worked on “recombinant plague” that included DNA to produce peptids. The idea was that when a victim was treated for plague and given antibiotics, the antibiotics would break down the cell walls and release artificial peptides which would subsequently cause paralysis, high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, changes in behavior, perception of pain, or other bizarre effects. Two days to two weeks later, the recovered patient would be struck with a heart attack, stroke, or fatal paralysis. Orent claims that this was successfully tested on animals.
                     (b) In 1987, another Soviet scientist, Dergei Netesov, Deputy Director of Vector Labs., went to Obolensk to develop “chimera” plague with Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) in plague bacteria. Similar to the 1986 research, the idea was that when the victim developed plague and was treated with antibiotics, the cell walls of the plague bacteria would break down releasing the VEE virus, producing encephalitis and death within 10 days.
                      (c) In 1992, another researcher, K.I. Volkovoi integrated genetic coding for diphtheria directly into plague plasmids, resulting in the plague bacterium being able to overcome immunity to live plague vaccine, increased its virulence (so it could be aerosolized), and was antibiotic resistant.
                        (d) Orsted reports that the Russians continue bioweapon research at various locations, including Kirov, Pokrov, Sergiyev Posad, and Ekaterinburg (fka Sverdlovsk).
                        • "So that's not suspicious at all"--Vox Popoli. Comments about the recent "suicide" of actor Isaac Kappy who is reported to have jumped off an over-pass bridge. What is note worthy is that Kappy is one of those trying to expose pedophile rings in Hollywood. As Vox Day wryly points out: "It is reported that 'several bystanders tried physically restraining Kappy from jumping but failed to hold him'. Perhaps they did. Or perhaps that is the Hollywood way to describe throwing someone off a bridge." As we have seen with the various spying scandals that have come to light over the last decade, the attempts to take down Trump, the various pedophile and underage sex rings involving wealthy and/or politically powerful people throughout the world, we live in a world where there appears to be a group--a cabal as Anonymous Conservative terms it--that seems to have substantial power behind the scenes and, for some reason, is heavily invested in child trafficking and abortion. We are only catching the smallest glimpses of a secret society which is "kept up by the power of the devil to administer these oaths unto the people, to keep them in darkness, to help such as sought power to gain power, and to murder, and to plunder, and to lie, and to commit all manner of wickedness and whoredoms" and "seeketh to overthrow the freedom of all lands, nations, and countries[.]" (Ether 8:16 and 25).
                        • Speaking of secret societies: "Disturbing Bit Of Trivia: In 2003 Interview, Comey Admitted To Voting Communist In The 70s – Just Like Brennan"--Red State. In other words, under the Obama Administration, two of our key intelligence agencies--the FBI and CIA--were directly controlled by communists. But, then, so was the presidency.
                        • Related: "STEELE IDENTIFIED RUSSIAN DOSSIER SOURCES, NOTES REVEAL"--Daily Caller. From the article: "Christopher Steele told a State Department official a former Russian spy chief and a top Kremlin adviser were involved in an operation to collect compromising information on Donald Trump." So, it was the Obama Administration, Hillary and the DNC that were colluding with the Russians. 
                        • Diversity is our strength: "Home Health Aide Accused Of Being Serial Killer Who Smothered At Least 12 Elderly Women" (via AT&T). Doesn't fit the usual profile of a male serial killer, but then I suspect the usual profile is probably not all that "usual." To add insult to injury, the killer--Billy Chemirmir--is Kenyan and apparently in the country illegally. 
                        • The road to Hell is paved with good intentions: "Historic LGBTQ Equality Act Passes House Of Representatives"--Newsweek (via AT&T). This appears to have been a party-line vote, so there is hope that it won't pass the Senate. What a lot of people that don't deal with these laws don't understand is that they are not about creating equal rights, but instead grant special rights as to housing, employment, etc., by making it easy to sue anyone for any imagined slight. For example, even if a person that is a member of a "protected class" is terminated for cause, if he/she/it can show that there was any amount of "discrimination"--even if the jury thinks that it was only 1%--they are entitled to at least recover attorney's fees whether or not they suffered any other actual damages. And it can happen to the most innocent people. A favorite tactic is to have "testers" call or visit a business to see if they can get someone to say or do something discriminatory. I've seen it several times with apartment managers being visited by someone supposedly handicapped and the manager might suggest that the person might be more comfortable on a ground floor apartment because of the alleged impediment. That statement, made out of concern, is illegal "steering" and can get the apartment manager or owner sued. 
                        • A reminder that we live in the 21st Century: "China’s Algorithms of Repression: Reverse Engineering a Xinjiang Police Mass Surveillance App"--Human Rights Watch. From the report:
                               Analysis of the IJOP app reveals that authorities are collecting massive amounts of personal information—from the color of a person’s car to their height down to the precise centimeter—and feeding it into the IJOP central system, linking that data to the person’s national identification card number. Our analysis also shows that Xinjiang authorities consider many forms of lawful, everyday, non-violent behavior—such as “not socializing with neighbors, often avoiding using the front door”—as suspicious. The app also labels the use of 51 network tools as suspicious, including many Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) and encrypted communication tools, such as WhatsApp and Viber.
                                 The IJOP app demonstrates that Chinese authorities consider certain peaceful religious activities as suspicious, such as donating to mosques or preaching the Quran without authorization. But most of the other behavior the app considers problematic are ethnic-and religion-neutral. Our findings suggest the IJOP system surveils and collects data on everyone in Xinjiang. The system is tracking the movement of people by monitoring the “trajectory” and location data of their phones, ID cards, and vehicles; it is also monitoring the use of electricity and gas stations of everybody in the region. This is consistent with Xinjiang local government statements that emphasize officials must collect data for the IJOP system in a “comprehensive manner” from “everyone in every household.”
                                    When the IJOP system detects irregularities or deviations from what it considers normal, such as when people are using a phone that is not registered to them, when they use more electricity than “normal,” or when they leave the area in which they are registered to live without police permission, the system flags these “micro-clues” to the authorities as suspicious and prompts an investigation. 
                                     Another key element of IJOP system is the monitoring of personal relationships. Authorities seem to consider some of these relationships inherently suspicious. For example, the IJOP app instructs officers to investigate people who are related to people who have obtained a new phone number or who have foreign links.
                                  If the Chinese government has and is using this technology, it makes you wonder what our government has available.

                                  Thursday, May 16, 2019

                                  Church Security -- Warrior Poet Society

                                  John Lovell is a former Ranger and missionary that runs a training company (as well as web site and YouTube channel) called the Warrior Poet Society. He recently posted the video, below, on forming a church security team. It is the first of a 12 part series. The series appears to be hosted on YouTube, but the videos (other than the first) are unlisted. However, Lovell has made the entire series available for viewing (at no cost) at his website (LINK). I only just watched the first video last night, but wanted to let you, my readers, know of this resource.


                                       The first video is an introduction to the series and the idea of a church security team, so it focuses on why you would need security (mostly referencing mass church shootings), the theology of church security (i.e., that the scriptures do not support taking a stance that God will protect us without our doing our part), and some thoughts about making sure that the security fits in with our mission to take the gospel to the world. Based on the titles and descriptions, it appears that the subsequent videos gets into the nuts and bolts of security planning.

                                  Tuesday, May 14, 2019

                                  May 14, 2019 -- A Quick Run Around the Web


                                  • Don't forget to check out this week's Woodpile Report. I do want to comment on a couple of the articles to which he cites. The first is "Ammo stockpiling: Four more reasons buying more ammo is one of the smartest things you’ll ever do before SHTF" from Natural News. That article, in turn, quotes from a 2014 TTAG article entitled "Combat Medic’s Advice: 'Shoot the heaviest rifle round…shoot at what (you) can hit, and then shoot it again'" for the proposition that 9 mm is a lousy defensive round because the combat medic had never seen anyone shot with 9 mm that wasn't able to first return fire. However, the context appears to be shootings in a combat zone and, therefore, probably using FMJ ammo. I'm not arguing that you probably have a better chance of surviving a pistol shot to the head than a blast from a land mine, but that is just the nature of under powered pistol ammunition and the widespread trauma caused by blast and shrapnel. The combat medic also denigrates the 5.56 as being effective. Yet I interviewed an Army combat medic that served multiple tours in Iraq, and he said almost the opposite: that the 5.56 was very effective, but if you were shot with 7.62x39 and weren't immediately killed, it is extremely unlikely that you would die from the wound. All I can say is that with any ammo, shot placement is key, and remind you that you may very well need multiple shots to stop an aggressor. 
                                         The second article is "Amazon's D-Day bestseller 'is a HOAX': Historians claim 'Through German Eyes' book is a fabrication because no soldiers named in it can be traced and its author is nowhere to be seen" from the Daily Mail. Spectacular headlines aside, it sounds like the Daily Mail interviewed three historians, one (Giles Milton, author of D-Day: The Soldiers' Story) of which believed that the book was a hoax because he could not track down the identities of the soldiers listed in the book and he could not find a German language version of the book. Another unnamed "skeptic" said he was keeping an open mind. On the other hand, "Robert Kershaw, who wrote the D-Day book Landing on the Edge of Eternity, said there was enough accuracies in Eckhertz's work to convince him" of its authenticity. Having read both of the books, I can tell you that there is nothing in the books to indicate that they were ever intended to be published in Germany because the author specifically mentioned that the accounts were his translations (into English) of his grandfather's notes. Obviously, if the book was going to be published in German, there would have been no reason for the author to have translated the accounts. That Milton could not find the interviewees via a web search is also not dispositive.
                                  A disturbing story out of Germany, where five people—three of them hotel guests who were impaled by crossbow bolts—have been found dead. A 53-year-old man and two women, ages 30 and 33, checked in to the hotel in rural Bavaria Friday evening and planned to stay three nights. On Saturday morning, a room cleaner found their bodies, with two crossbows nearby plus a third unused crossbow in a bag. Police found the other two bodies, both women, when searching the 30-year-old's home in northern Germany, about 400 miles away, on Monday. Police say they are investigating "possible connections" between the deaths, the BBC reports; relationships between the victims are not yet clear. It's also not clear how the women found in the home died, the Washington Post reports.
                                  • A reader sends: "WHO Warns Ebola Outbreak Critical As Armed Militants Target Healthcare Workers"--Zero Hedge. The article reports that "[a]s of May 7, there have been 1,600 confirmed and probable cases of EVD (Ebola Virus Disease), of which 1,069 have died - a mortality rate of 67%." However, local militias have been attacking health care workers and treatment centers that have been involved with monitoring and controlling the Ebola outbreak, and fliers believed to have been distributed by Mai-Mai fighters have warned people from cooperating with any of the Ebola health workers, so I would take the figures above as being conservative. WHO has warned that the Ebola virus disease could spread to other parts of the DRC, as well as into neighboring Rwanda, Uganda and South Sudan. 
                                  • "CACHING WITH PVC"--American Partisan. NC Scout gives tips and pointers on how to do it right. One thing he points out is that PVC tends to collect moisture on the inside, so everything going inside needs to be protected against moisture, whether it is coated in cosmoline or separately sealed. I've also read warnings not to use silicone to seal the tubes as it can off-gas and corrode metals. NC Scout suggests that you might want to try caching these tubes above-ground and has some suggestions. While this is fine with inorganic or dry materials, when I researched this matter, I found a lot of videos where people had failed to bury the tubes below the frost line, and wound up with bulged cans and spoiled food because of the freeze/thaw cycle. The big challenge, though, is finding the tubes again. 
                                  • All the means to purify water won't amount to anything if there is no water: "Teen Dies After Boy Scouts Run Out Of Water". The article reports:
                                  A 16-year-old died on a Boy Scout hike in Arizona after the group ran out of water. The group hiked the 1,500-foot Picacho Peak last Saturday, officials said, and drank the last of its water at the top, the Arizona Republic reports.
                                  • "THREE PISTOL BREAKING POINTS"--Force Necessary. By breaking points, the author is referring to critical pistol handling skills and judgments. The first is the operation of the trigger under stress. The second is the decision of whether your assailant is far enough away that you can safely use an extended two-handed grip, or must use a one-handed retention grip on the handgun. The third is the decision on whether you have the time and distance to make a precision aimed shot or must use a quick and dirty aim. An excerpt:
                                        When possible, in emergencies, I have noticed I did not have the advised fingertip pad on the trigger. My trigger finger was much deeper. And I learned later I could shoot well with a deeper finger. This idea was quietly spoken years ago, because it was taboo to say otherwise. But many big name, super vets have come out in very recent years supporting the realistic “more finger on trigger” idea. And I appreciate the support. It was lonely out here in outer space.  When people like Pat MacNamara and Tom Givens started writing about this finger insert problem, I know it it gave me the confidence to voice my opinions too. And now? I see this idea everywhere. This expression “the size of the gun, the size of your hand” is popping up everywhere.
                                           Your best squeeze might not be your group’s best squeeze. Your personal achievement is getting that “straight back” pull, with your size hand, your size finger and your size gun, in what you perceive to be a the oh-crap, moment-grip. It might be that, the first “pad” of the finger  squeeze (very unnatural for most folks), might instead be the middle of the finger for you. Or even the bend of your finger. In all the pistol qualifications I’ve done, when at long distances, when trying for higher scores, I always seemed to shoot unnaturally.  How about you?
                                      Read the whole thing.
                                             DTG has always recommended the absolute minimum is to have 1,000 rounds per rifle and 500 rounds per pistol owned in reserve, which does not count that which you use to keep your skills honed, which should be about 750 to 1,000 rounds per year with your rifle, and 500 to 750 rounds per year on your pistol.  I’ve upped shooting to 1,000 to 1,500 rounds per year with pistols and kept the rifle the same (I carry every day, and need to ensure I’m efficient, as should anyone who carries IMHO, especially now that ammunition is cheaper than it ever has been).
                                                You might also throw into the ‘Reserve’ equation replacement magazines for all mag fed weapons.  DTG’s always recommended an absolute minimum of seven magazines for each rifle (7.62NATO will most likely be 20’s/5.56NATO, 30’s) for SHTF preparation and three magazines per pistol.  Dead minimum.  That number doesn’t take into account any you might load for your ruck/resupply, etc. 
                                            Remember: these are minimum numbers.
                                            Matt then juxtaposed that info against an article debunking the myth of the single shot kill, a real-life defensive gun use encounter, and academic research published by the Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, titled, “Unusually Low Mortality of Penetrating Wounds of the Chest,” to surmise that each hit only has a 22 percent chance of stopping the target.
                                            • "The Understudied Female Sexual Predator"--The Atlantic. The article provides more detailed statistics from various crime surveys and reports, showing that women perpetrate more sexual crimes or assault than commonly believed, but also warns that the actual numbers are underreported. The reason?
                                                     Stereotypes about women “include the notion that women are nurturing, submissive helpmates to men,” they write. “The idea that women can be sexually manipulative, dominant, and even violent runs counter to these stereotypes. Yet studies have documented female-perpetrated acts that span a wide spectrum of sexual abuse.”
                                                      They argue that female perpetration is downplayed among professionals in mental health, social work, public health, and law, with harmful results for male and female victims, in part due to these “stereotypical understandings of women as sexually harmless,” even as ongoing “heterosexism can render lesbian and bisexual victims of female-perpetrated sexual victimization invisible to professionals.”
                                                       To date, no existing clinical studies examine large numbers of female sexual perpetrators. As a result, we understand less than we might of a category of sexual perpetrator that, while not the most common, will still victimize many thousands each year.

                                                    "Removing the Scammer’s Boot... FAST"--Lock Picking Lawyer (2 min.)

                                                           Former vice president Joe Biden's son Hunter Biden partnered with infamous mobster Whitey Bulger's nephew and former secretary of state John Kerry's stepson for his lucrative business deal with the Bank of China, according to reporter Peter Schweizer's latest book.
                                                           Schweizer points to the business deal with state-owned Bank of China, a $1.5 billion private equity investment, as a possible reason why the current presidential candidate has adopted a conciliatory attitude toward China. The lucrative deal between the Bank of China and Hunter Biden's company was inked in 2013 just weeks after Joe Biden brought his son along on an official trip to China.
                                                             Schweizer also lays out the interesting cast of characters who partnered with Biden for the deal, such as the Thornton Group consulting firm, which is headed by James Bulger. The son of Massachusetts state senator Billy Bulger, James is named after his uncle James "Whitey" Bulger, who was killed in prison late last year after a decades-long career in the mob that landed him on the FBI's Most Wanted list.
                                                               Also partnered with Biden is Chris Heinz, the stepson of John Kerry. Biden and Heinz control Rosemont Seneca Partners, the private equity firm that received billions of investment dollars from China.
                                                                 A representative for Heinz says his involvement in the deal has been "misreported." He says that neither he nor his firm, Rosemont Seneca Partners, had any role in the deal. He says an unaffiliated second firm, Rosemont Seneca Bohai, is the firm doing business with Bank of China, and that Heinz is not involved. The representative also says Heinz has never been to China.
                                                            • More: "Steve Hilton: China Is ‘Funding Biden Family Businesses’ with ‘Billions of Dollars’"--Breitbart. The article reports that "Hunter Biden — Biden’s second son —  secured $1 billion in financing  from the Bank of China — an arm of the Chinese government — for a private equity firm founded by himself and Christopher Heinz, the stepson of former Secretary of State John Kerry. That private equity firm was named Bohai-Harvest RST (BHR)."
                                                                     ... Because when you encourage women to reject their natural proclivity to build and to invest in marriage and family, there’s a domino effect that extends far beyond where the eye can see.
                                                                       Thirty years later, here’s what we have to show for this new worldview: an epidemic of guilt-ridden and stressed-out mothers who know very little about how to raise kids; a triple increase in childhood obesity; chronic sleep deprivation for kids and adults alike; defiant schoolchildren who need anti-bullying programs to learn what their grandmothers could have taught them; and a culture that celebrates divorce as a panacea for discontent.
                                                                        That’s what family breakdown looks like when women are taught to forget about sacrifice and the common good under the guise that doing so is necessary to achieve “equality” with men.
                                                                  • "The Real ‘Bombshells’ Are About to Hit Their Targets"--American Greatness. The author relates that Inspector General Michael Horowitz is expected to soon be issuing his report on "the potential abuse of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act by top officials in the Obama Administration and holdovers in the early Trump Administration who were overseeing the investigation of Donald Trump’s presidential campaign." 
                                                                           The application cited the infamous Steele dossier—unsubstantiated political propaganda that had been funded by the Hillary Clinton campaign and Democratic National Committee—as its primary source of evidence. But the specific political origin of the dossier intentionally was omitted in the court filing. (Robert Mueller similarly tap danced around the role of Fusion GPS, the political consulting firm that hired Christopher Steele to create the dossier. Mueller never mentioned the name “Fusion GPS” in the 448-page document, referring to it only vaguely as “the firm that produced the Steele reporting.”)
                                                                            Former FBI Director James Comey and former Deputy Attorney General Sally Yates signed the original FISA application. It was renewed three times; subsequent signers included former acting FBI Director Andrew McCabe and Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein. If there’s one document that represents the malevolence, chicanery and arrogance of the original Trump-Russia collusion fraudsters, it’s the Page FISA application.
                                                                      • Related: "Islamic Spain: 'In this pretty world, gallantry took its last bow'"--No Other Foundation. A review of The Myth of the Andalusian Paradise by Dario Fernandez-Morera. The Andalusian Paradise refers to Moor controlled Spain, but the "Myth" part speaks to the fact that the Muslim Moors were not tolerant or benevolent to the Spaniards, particularly the Christians.
                                                                        As far as tolerance for other faiths was concerned, the Maliki school of law which governed al-Andalus [the Muslim controlled portion of the Iberian Peninsula] was among the strictest. Under it, as in the rest of the Islamic world, the Christian dhimmis were relegated to the very bottom of a heavily stratified social ladder. At the top stood the Arabs, then the Berbers, then freed white Muslim slaves who converted to Islam, and then former Christians who converted to Islam. The dhimmis occupied the bottom rung, and they were never allowed to forget it. They had to pay the jizya tax for their protection, and were subject to a multitude of laws enforcing their fifth-rate status.

                                                                        Saturday, May 11, 2019

                                                                        May 11, 2019 -- A Quick Run Around the Web

                                                                        "Team Patrol Formations"--Max Velocity Tactical (21 min.)


                                                                        "Team Patrol Formations: Position of the Team Leader"--Max Velocity Tactical (28 min.)

                                                                        • Be sure to check out this week's Weekend Knowledge Dump from Greg Ellifritz. Lots of good stuff on survival, self-defense, and firearms training in this one. Be sure to check it out.
                                                                        • I was going to use this article even before reading Ellifritz's post, so bear with me: "Concealed Carry and Using Public Restrooms"--Range365. The author begins by noting how common it is for people (CCL holders and police, even) to forget a handgun in a bathroom stall, and he links to several articles as examples. He then moves on to some practical tips: don't leave it on the back of the toilet/the toilet paper dispenser/handicap rail/etc.; don't hang it by its trigger guard on a coat hook; and use a holster that it can't fall out of when you drop your trousers. And he adds: 
                                                                        Now that you have a proper holster, keep it attached to whatever it was hooked onto in the first place. If it’s on your belt, keep it there. By applying some tension to your belt as you drop trou [sic], you should be able to maintain the gun in an upright position, in its holster, while you lower your pants or skirt.
                                                                        Also, he warns: 
                                                                                When you release your belt buckle, the weight of your gun will unwind your belt. Quickly. Under those conditions, even the best gun belt in the world will flop and your holster will probably flip upside down.
                                                                                  If you carry a semi-auto, most of the weight is in the grip area because of all those cartridges in the magazine. When the belt goes slack, gravity does the rest. As long as you’re prepared, that’s no big deal. Just get in the habit of either keeping pressure on the belt or supporting the holster when you loosen the belt.
                                                                            Finally, the author warns about people being able to see under the stall door or walls, or through a crack, and spot your firearm. He suggests using a stall that is adjacent to a real wall and furthest from the entrance, or using one of the individual "unisex" or "family" restrooms that are becoming increasingly common.
                                                                                     I've tried pinching the belt between my legs when sitting to keep it from coming undone, but the most effective way I discovered to keep the belt from unwinding and falling was to use a belt with a buckle that was too big, or almost too big, to go through my pants loop, and feed the belt so the buckle is on the same side as the holster. Thus, the belt can't simply unwind from my pants and fall to the floor due to the weight of the holster and gun.
                                                                                   As a general rule, when a barrel is stamped “223 Rem,” it has a SAAMI-spec chamber, and as noted above, it is intended only for non-serious purposes. Tight chambers boost accuracy but have no place on high-capacity, military rifles.
                                                                                     Conversely, when the barrel is stamped “5.56×45,” it has a looser NATO chamber, with adequate leade, or freebore (this is a short section of bore just ahead of the chamber that is not rifled, allowing the bullet to jump off the case before it engages the rifling). The combination of generous chamber dimensions and adequate leade is intended to prevent stuck cases, broken extractors, and pressure-spikes in autoloading rifles, particularly when they get hot.
                                                                                      Of course, loose chambers yield slightly less inherent accuracy than tight chambers. However, for serious purposes, this accuracy compromise is insignificant.
                                                                                    The author then goes on to the 7.62 NATO versus .308, which is actually the opposite of the .223/5.56; that is, "[m]ilitary chamber dimensions for 7.62×51 NATO are actually tighter than the those for the original '308' chamber dimensions." Thus, the author recommends that if you have the opportunity to pick a barrel for a defensive rifle, you get one in .308 over 7.62x51 (NATO) to give you the most flexibility in using ammunition.
                                                                                    • "First Look: CMMG 9 ARC Magazine"--Shooting Illustrated. I mentioned these recently as a good option for a 9 mm upper on a standard AR lower, because the ARC magazine is a standard size AR magazine and doesn't require a magazine well insert. This article, however, indicates that the ARC magazines will only work with CMMG's proprietary 9 mm upper. If correct, that is disappointing.
                                                                                    • "Best Wood Splitting Maul: Getting The Best Bang for Your Strike"--Survival Mastery
                                                                                             A maul, also referred to as a sledge axe, block splitter, block buster, and axe is a heavy, long-handled hammer/axe used to drive stakes or wedges and splitting. One side of this cutting tool takes the shape of a sledgehammer while the other side takes the shape of an axe. Usually, the best wood splitting maul is equipped with a head that weighs approximately eight pounds.
                                                                                             As far as splitting wood is concerned, this tool is superior to a typical axe. The weight of the head plays a bigger role when cutting wood because it helps to prevent the axe from being trapped in wood. Usually, the difference between a sledge axe and a normal cutting axe is clearly observed on the wedge. The wedge is somewhat convex to circumvent jamming. 
                                                                                          I made the mistake of buying a cheap Harbor Freight maul years ago which was pretty much unusable because it came to such a dull, rounded edge. I tried to sharpen it, which helped somewhat, but to get it the proper shape was going to take too much time at the grindstone to be worth it.
                                                                                                  Payne's biggest mistake was deciding to act like she was a police officer, because it started the sequence of events. If she felt she needed to get involved, she should have simply gotten the license plate number of Herring's vehicle and a description, and notified police. If you start to do something stupid, you need to stop before it gets worse.
                                                                                                   This also appears to be a situation where the CCL holder faced off against someone that would not comply with her orders. This is just a guess, but I suspect that her default was to go for the gun. 
                                                                                              • I've linked to this article before, but since summer is right around the corner, it behooves us to revisit this subject: "Drowning Doesn't Look Like Drowning"--Soundings. The author writes:
                                                                                                       ... Drowning is almost always a deceptively quiet event. The waving, splashing and yelling that dramatic conditioning (television) prepares us to look for is rarely seen in real life.
                                                                                                          The Instinctive Drowning Response, so named by Francesco A. Pia, Ph.D., is what people do to avoid actual or perceived suffocation in the water. And it does not look like most people expect it to. When someone is drowning there is very little splashing, and no waving or yelling or calling for help of any kind. To get an idea of just how quiet and undramatic drowning can be, consider this: It is the number two cause of accidental death in children age 15 and under (just behind vehicle accidents). Of the approximately 750 children who will drown next year, about 375 of them will do so within 25 yards of a parent or other adult. In 10 percent of those drownings, the adult will actually watch them do it, having no idea it is happening.
                                                                                                  * * *
                                                                                                  • Except in rare circumstances, drowning people are physiologically unable to call out for help. The respiratory system was designed for breathing. Speech is a secondary or overlaid function. Breathing must be fulfilled before speech occurs.
                                                                                                  • Drowning people’s mouths alternately sink below and reappear above the surface of the water. The mouths of drowning people are not above the surface of the water long enough for them to exhale, inhale and call out for help. When the drowning people’s mouths are above the surface, they exhale and inhale quickly as their mouths start to sink below the surface of the water.
                                                                                                  • Drowning people cannot wave for help. Nature instinctively forces them to extend their arms laterally and press down on the water’s surface. Pressing down on the surface of the water permits drowning people to leverage their bodies so they can lift their mouths out of the water to breathe.
                                                                                                  • Throughout the Instinctive Drowning Response, drowning people cannot voluntarily control their arm movements. Physiologically, drowning people who are struggling on the surface of the water cannot stop drowning and perform voluntary movements such as waving for help, moving toward a rescuer or reaching out for a piece of rescue equipment.
                                                                                                  • From beginning to end of the Instinctive Drowning Response, people’s bodies remain upright in the water, with no evidence of a supporting kick. Unless rescued by a trained lifeguard, these drowning people can only struggle on the surface of the water from 20 to 60 seconds before submersion occurs. (Source: On Scene magazine: Fall 2006 page 14)
                                                                                                           This doesn’t mean that a person who is yelling for help and thrashing isn’t in real trouble — they are experiencing aquatic distress. Not always present before the instinctive drowning response, aquatic distress doesn’t last long, but unlike true drowning, these victims can still assist in their own rescue. They can grab lifelines, reach for throw rings, etc.
                                                                                                             Look for these other signs of drowning when persons are in the water:
                                                                                                      • Head low in the water, mouth at water level
                                                                                                      • Head tilted back with mouth open
                                                                                                      • Eyes glassy and empty, unable to focus
                                                                                                      • Eyes closed
                                                                                                      • Hair over forehead or eyes
                                                                                                      • Not using legs
                                                                                                      • Hyperventilating or gasping
                                                                                                      • Trying to swim in a particular direction but not making headway
                                                                                                      • Trying to roll over onto the back
                                                                                                      • Appears to be climbing an invisible ladder
                                                                                                        So, if a crewmember falls overboard and everything looks okay, don’t be too sure. Sometimes the most common indication that someone is drowning is that they don’t look as if they’re drowning. They may just look as if they are treading water and looking up at the deck. One way to be sure? Ask them, “Are you alright?” If they can answer at all, they probably are. If they return a blank stare, you may have less than 30 seconds to get to them. And parents — children playing in the water make noise. When they get quiet, you need to get to them and find out why.

                                                                                                        Note: the manufacturer has not submitted the plates for NIJ testing, so take that into consideration. On the other hand, in the test conducted in this video, the plate defeated everything thrown at it, including the M2 AP round from a .30-06 at 15 ft (which is basically what the NIJ requires). Because it is a composite ceramic and polymer plate, the weight is fairly light.

                                                                                                        Can you spot the differences?
                                                                                                        If nothing else, you might want to save his list of scholarly articles that support the theory that Diversity + Proximity = War.
                                                                                                        • Speaking of the Left's mantra's about diversity: "Is diversity strength?"--American Thinker. From the article:
                                                                                                                 ... Racial and other quotas are used by universities and professional schools for admissions and by corporations and governments for employment.  These policies are said to augment the laws against discrimination.  But ironically, they end up actively discriminating, typically against white males. 

                                                                                                                   An insidious form of forced diversity is the lowering of standards for its own sake.  For example, if not enough of certain minority groups can meet the requirement for the police or fire departments, the standards are defined ispo facto as discriminatory and adjusted downward.  The same applies for the acceptance of women in combat military service.  Ditto with college admissions.  It's a given that forced diversity leads to lower standards, and lower standards invariably lead to poorer performance. 
                                                                                                            [F]our films, all in Arabic, were made on behalf of the Foreign Office, and all begin with a mosque skyline and melodic chants of “Allahu Akbar”, the start of the Muslim call to prayer. They are unapologetically religious, eager to show Arabic-speaking Muslims how welcoming Britain is, how Islamic institutions exist in Britain to cater to their cultural and religious traditions, as a friendly home from home.
                                                                                                            But she laments the country's supposed intolerance now. If I were to answer her question, I would say that in the 1960s, the English did not know what was going to happen to their country, but now they do. On the other hand, they were warned.
                                                                                                            The Boomer Age is drawing to its close.  When one speaks of this group, it tends to mostly focus on white Boomers (not that others are outside the group, but to such a great extent, it really does mean those of mostly European background, if for no other reason than they have been the largest demographic group).  When that age does end, we will see an ever dwindling European demographic majority in many Western nations (Canada and the USA are almost certainly the first, soon followed by a variety of European nations).  That significant point of majority will be fading, as the numbers precipitously drop until below 50%.  The question looming then is, what is next?  Will it be the glorious Brave New World of harmonious multiculturalism or an uneasy balkanization that trends ever more to tribalism and violence?  Based on existing evidence and studies, I believe that it will be closer to the latter.
                                                                                                            I don't think it will be as long even as the author describes, because he is only looking at demographics on a national level. That 50% threshold was crossed long ago in many of our largest cities, and some of our most populous states (e.g., California) are about to enter minority/majority status. Because of our federal system, these states will be able to exercise greater and greater control over the national fisc ... unless a bloc of smaller states forms to stymie the larger states' ambitions. On top of this, the author is only considering racial demographics, without considering other social and political factors. The Left loathes the Right and rapidly moving to the position that the only acceptable outcome is to have all political power in their hands.
                                                                                                            By analyzing the volcanic rocks at Yellowstone, researchers discovered that rhyolite lava flows were “highly clustered in time,” with eruptions taking place in episodes. In one phase of activity there were seven eruptions over a period of around 1,000 years. The team now hopes to further refine these episodes—including the timing and length—and build this into volcanic hazard assessments for Yellowstone.
                                                                                                                  'What has happened at STEM is awful. But it’s not a statistic. We can’t be used as a reason for gun control. We are people not a statement,' one said in footage broadcast by KUSA.
                                                                                                                     Another added: 'We wanted Kendrick to be mourned. We wanted all of you to join us in that mourning, but that was not allowed here. We all walked out. We were not kicked out.' 
                                                                                                              Mental illness certainly seemed to play a role in this. For instance, one of the shooters was 16-year-old Maya McKinney, who is "transitioning to a male" and goes by the name Alec. In another twist, it also appears that the shooters would bully younger students, and had "joked" on multiple occasions about shooting up the school.
                                                                                                              According to a new study published in The Lancet, the reason is partly because of travelers. The large volume of international flights arriving daily makes L.A. the second most vulnerable county in the country to the measles outbreak. 
                                                                                                              It appears to be the case that the majority of white immigrants into the  American British colonies between the years 1630 and the American Revolution in 1776 were slaves or indentured slaves who often remained slaves beyond their term.  In other words, depending on the death rates of white slaves, most white Americans today are descendants of former slaves.  Jordan and Walsh report that two-thirds of white immigrants from the British Isles were slaves for life or for a contracted period. It is an American myth that the colonies were settled by free men and women. “The truth could not be more different,” write Jordan and Walsh [authors of the book "White Cargo"]. “The freedoms of modern American society evolved only gradually from enforced labor and penal servitude.” 
                                                                                                              I was aware of the use (and abuse) of the indentured servitude providing slaves for the New World. Heck, that was the background for one of my favorite books, Rafael Sabatini's novel Captain Blood. And most students of American history are aware that Georgia was originally established as a penal colony. But I was not aware that such a high percentage of the "colonists" were, in fact, indentured servants. Unfortunately, given our current racial tensions and conflicts, the European slaves had trouble with the hot and humid conditions of the Southern and Caribbean colonies, and tended to die quickly. This is the reason that the plantation owners eventually turned to Africa as a source of slaves.
                                                                                                              Kentucky's Cabinet for Health and Family Services—the state agency that provides child protective services—has a practice of obtaining blank emergency custody orders pre-signed by judges. Social workers then fill out the documents with the necessary information after they've been signed by a judge and then use them to take custody of children from parents who have come under investigation. Let me repeat that: no judge actually reviews these orders, or the evidence used to justify separating a family, before signing them.
                                                                                                              I could see this happening with Red Flag orders.
                                                                                                              • "Immigration Idealism"--by Matthew Schmitz at First Things. Schmitz notes that Western leaders have idealized (or, perhaps, idolized), immigrants while concomitantly holding the native (generally white, I would add) working class in contempt. He continues:  
                                                                                                                     It is impossible to understand the Western response to migration without understanding its basis in a certain form of liberal Christianity: a Christianity that reduces the gospel to an abstract law of love, ignoring much of Scripture—and reality.
                                                                                                              * * *
                                                                                                                      In the run-up to World War II, men inside and outside the Church invoked the gospel to justify appeasement and pacifism. After his own flirtation with the idea, Reinhold Niebuhr came to believe that pacifism was “unable to distinguish between the peace of capitulation to tyranny and the peace of the Kingdom of God.” In the name of an abstract “law of love,” pacifists abandoned their duties to God and man. They refused to recognize that a fallen world can never be free of conflict. This was bad politics—and bad religion. 
                                                                                                                      We are making a similar mistake today. Faced with a historic surge of migration, Christian leaders have misread the gospel and misjudged human affairs. They have done so with the best of intentions. Just as Niebuhr’s contemporaries were correct to say that Christians must be peacemakers, today’s churchmen are right to say that we must welcome the stranger. Each theme is inescapable in Scripture and demands the Christian’s obedience to the point of pain. But obedience is never so simple as renouncing violence or refusing to defend national boundaries. In an imperfect world, peace must be protected by strength of arms, and welcoming the stranger entails preserving the society that might welcome him. 
                                                                                                              * * * 
                                                                                                                       Immigration idealists fear that any distinction between citizen and alien, national and foreigner, will revive the bloodiest ideologies of the twentieth century. Just as fear of past mistakes motivated Niebuhr’s contemporaries to veer from Christian militarism to an equally disastrous pacifism, our churchmen risk going from a malign nationalism to a well-meaning but disastrous anti-nationalism. In both cases, a deficient understanding of citizenship is to blame. ... By invoking their heavenly citizenship, Christian pacifists shirked their earthly responsibilities. 
                                                                                                                      Immigration idealists do the same. Along with Church and family, the political community is one of Leo XIII’s “three necessary societies, distinct from one another and yet harmoniously combined by God.” Our possession of a heavenly citizenship is no reason for disdaining the political community, ...
                                                                                                                     Rather than acknowledge each man’s need for a political home, immigration idealists valorize a kind of homelessness. ... 
                                                                                                                  * * * 
                                                                                                                      Christians need a response to migration that does not merely baptize liberal ­pieties. The richest resource is in Question 105 of the Summa, where Thomas Aquinas discusses the justice of the Israelites’ laws governing the treatment of foreigners. He observes that certain commandments, such as “The Ammonite and the Moabite, even after the tenth generation, shall not enter into the church of the Lord,” may strike us as cruel and seem to conflict with more universalist statements in the Old and New Testaments. But for Thomas, God’s commandments are never arbitrary or unjust. 
                                                                                                                       Thomas makes several distinctions. The first is between travelers and migrants. Both should be treated with respect, but people seeking to settle in the community can only be welcomed as citizens if they fulfill certain conditions. They must, first of all, have the common good of the community at heart. It is for this reason, Thomas says, that certain people who had settled in the land were not given citizenship until after the third generation. 
                                                                                                                     Thomas also distinguishes among migrants based on the nation and culture from which they come. Those whose nations of origin had “close relations” with the Israelites, such as “the Egyptians, among whom they were born and educated, and the ­Idumeans, the children of Esau, Jacob’s brother,” were to be admitted to the Israelite community after the third generation. Those who came from historically hostile peoples, such as the Ammonites and Moabites, were never to be welcomed as citizens. 
                                                                                                                      Unlike today’s immigration idealists, Thomas makes a sharp distinction between the spiritual and political communities. The former was open to all comers. The latter was not. “The Law excluded the men of no nation from the worship of God and from things pertaining to the welfare of the soul,” he writes. “But in temporal matters concerning the public life of the people, admission was not granted to everyone at once.” Grace knows no boundaries, or distinctions between nations. A just immigration policy follows a different logic. 
                                                                                                                       Our Christian leaders take neither Scripture nor political reality as seriously as Thomas did. Conflating the openness of the Church with the openness of society, they imagine that immigration preferences based on shared history and culture are unjust—though their justice and prudence are demonstrated in Scripture. They conflate the welcome given the traveler with the different and more demanding welcome given the aspiring citizen. 
                                                                                                                     A just immigration policy will recognize that whereas the Church welcomes all comers, no nation can. It will insist that migration policy give preference to those who share the history, culture, and creed of the welcoming nation. It will recognize that those who are, by reason of history and belief, hostile to the host culture cannot really aspire to join it. European states should not forget that they are, in Pierre Manent’s phrase, societies “of a Christian mark,” impressed with an indelible character. The same is true of America.  
                                                                                                                      Above all, a more realistic immigration policy will recognize that not everyone can or should be ­admitted to any political community. Despite what some seem to believe, neither the United States nor Europe is a Celestial City from which no weary pilgrim can be turned away. Sentimentality about ­migration should be rejected as firmly as anti-­migrant bigotry.