Monday, October 29, 2018

October 29, 2018 -- A Quick Run Around The Web

Note that the test is being conducted from a 12-inch barrel. Alexander Arms, which developed the cartridge, recommends a 20-inch or 24-inch barrel for hunting. Muzzle velocity out of the 12-inch barrel was 2,287 fps. Turning to some ballistic tables produced by Alexander Arms (PDF) which has velocities for 123 gr. SST rounds, this is equivalent to the velocity between 50 and 100 yards from a 19.5-inch barrel, and between 100 and 150 yards from a 24-inch barrel. 

I had every bit of confidence in the gun, the load, and the scope. I’d been told all week that 500 yards should be easy. But as my finger settled on the trigger, the gun moved, imperceptibly on my end, but 480 yards away, it caused the reticle to jump from the buck’s lungs to the backstrap to the guts and back again. I hesitated and thought to myself, This is too damn far. Seconds later, the buck vanished.
  • "Small Pistols Have Some Inherent Problems"--Active Response Training. Besides being more difficult to shoot accurately, they are more difficult or impossible to manage one handed malfunction clearance. Some pistols lack any rear sight at all, let alone one that allows for one handed racking of the slide; others lack a manual slide lock. Which brings me back to a point I've made before when someone raises the problems with small auto-loaders: if it worries you, just get a revolver.
  • "Why Put Your Windows Down?"--Schafer's Self-Defense Corner. Someone asked the author why, when shooting breaks out, experienced operators roll down their vehicle windows. There are several reasons outlined, but it essentially comes down to two factors: either you will be shooting out of the vehicle, so rolling down the windows help mitigate against hearing damage and allows you to shoot without having to shoot through a window; or you will be shot at, in which case the window down helps mitigate against a window shattering and spraying you with broken glass.
  • "How the Gun Control Act of 1968 Changed America’s Approach to Firearms—And What People Get Wrong About That History"--Time Magazine. Don't expect an unbiased article. Nevertheless it provides some of the historical context to passage of the 1968 Act. The article relates:
Though the 1968 law was a victory of sorts for gun-control activists, many were disappointed it didn’t include a registry of firearms or federal licensing requirements for gun owners. TIME reported [at the time], “It may take another act of horror to push really effective gun curbs through Congress.”
The final draft also didn't include the gun-controller's biggest goal, which was to ban handguns, although that was the original purpose of the legislation. The article also reports that the president of the NRA at the time stated that the NRA could live with the law and that it was reasonable. This made a lot of gun-owners realize that the NRA was out of touch with its base, and let to the 1977 NRA convention upset that saw some of the old-guard "play-along to get-along" thrown out of leadership positions to make room for those that were more willing to defend gun rights. 
  • "7.62 NATO vs .308 Winchester Ammo, What’s The Difference?"--Ammo Land. Most of these points I was already aware of: the different pressures, slight differences in chamber dimensions, and differences in the case wall thickness. The author says that the pressure difference is exaggerated, explaining:
That 50,000 number [for military ammunition] is actually an accurate representation of copper units of pressure or CUP. A far less precise way to measure pressure, the method literally relies on looking at how much little copper disks compress when you fire the gun. While there isn’t a consistent mathematical formula that equates CUP to pounds per square inch (PSI) across the board, the difference in this specific case is somewhere around 8,000. In other words, the maximum pressure for 7.62x51mm NATO is about 58,000 psi – not all that far from the 62,000 figure for commercial .308 Winchester.
    However, the difference in chamber size--in particular, headspace--should be considered:
             Military rifles for 7.62x51mm NATO can, and usually do, have longer chambers. In things like machine guns powered by ammo made all over the world, there’s got to be some slack for reliable feeding and operation with all that violence going on during the feeding and ejection process. The solution is to make the chamber headspace a bit longer. If you’re not familiar with headspace, think of it as the distance from the bolt face to the point in the chamber that stops forward motion of the cartridge case. If chamber headspace is too long for a cartridge, it will float back and forth in the chamber. If headspace is too small, the bolt will not close properly or will require excess force to close.
                How much different is the headspace? The .308 Winchester chamber headspace is between 1.630 and 1.6340 inches (SAAMI Info). The 7.62x51mm NATO is between 1.6355 and 1.6405 inches. While the published numbers show about six-thousandths of an inch difference, it’s not unusual for the headspace in a surplus 7.62 rifle to be 10 or even 15 thousandths longer than that of a commercial .308. That doesn’t sound like a big deal, right up to the point where you fire thinner commercial brass in a long-chambered rifle. The brass will stretch, possibly enough to contribute to a dangerous case rupture. Doing the same thing with thicker military brass is no big deal and the way the system was designed. Thicker brass can handle some extra stretching into a longer chamber throat, so it's no big deal.
          The author suggests using a set of Go/No-Go headspace gauges to spec your headspace before using commercial ammunition in your military rifle.

            "What they won't teach you in calculus"--3Blue1Brown (16-1/2 min.)
            Derivatives are generally pictured as the slope of a curve, but the author of this video discusses another way to think about derivatives. 

                       Upon hearing rumors of the caravan, the Salvadoran Ministry of Justice and Security dispatched police to patrol the perimeter of the plaza where migrants gathered Sunday morning, many with small backpacks and some with no belongings at all.
                        The measures were to ensure the safe passage of the migrants rather than hinder their journey, according to a ministry spokesman.
                         In a statement, Minister of Justice and Public Security Mauricio Landaverde emphasized that “mobility is a reality and a right.”
                  You read that correctly: a senior El Salvadoran officials claims that entry to the United States is a right.
                            All this nationalist populism is extremely threatening to the people who are arranging transnational institutions to benefit themselves. Everything you’ve been seeing in the gun issue lately fits that. Google censoring pro-gun views? Facebook doing the same? Big transnational companies like Levi’s donating large amounts to gun control? Financial institutions refusing to do business with gun makers, the NRA, etc? NRA not being able to obtain basic business insurance? That’s all been the people who control these transnational institutions attempting to put the brakes on populist sentiment using the institutional power they maintain control over. You didn’t see this happening a decade ago because a decade ago a lot of these institutions didn’t exist, or hadn’t cemented power. Facebook literally went from nothing, to a transnational corporation that can and possibly does decide national elections in 13 years. Think about that.
                            Very little is more threatening to an established order than the idea that they might be the targets of an armed revolt. Despite what many people think, it’s not because transnational elites want to kill you. ... What transnational elites want to maintain first and foremost is the acceptance and respect of other transnational elites who are like themselves.
                              In most countries, the established order can keep their thumb on the peasantry to maintain an order to their liking and still maintain respectability. ...
                               It’s a different story here. Our peasantry can complain: with guns and bullets. ...
                                  Whether some want to admit it or not, having an armed population is a significant check for minorities against the depredations of the majority. I’m not speaking only of racial or religious minorities necessarily here, though it’s true for them too. It goes back to the old quote from Al Capone: “You can get much farther with a kind word and a gun than you can with a kind word alone.” To the kind of people arranging the transnational order, this is the Worst Thing Ever. Not necessarily because it threatens their power in the immediate, but because it threatens their respectability with other people like them.
                                     Cliven Bundy and his family are still alive. Is there any reader out there who thinks Eric Holder couldn’t have given an order to ruthlessly crush the Bundys and anyone who came to their aid? Almost certainly he could have. Whether that would have set in motion a chain of events that would have escalated toward a much wider conflict I think is debatable, and I think it probably would have. But in the immediate, Holder could have wiped them out. There would have been bloodshed on both sides, but in the short term, Holder would have won. But he didn’t give that order. Why? Because he would have lost all respect from other transnational elites. Ruthlessly crushing rebellions isn’t a respectable business these days in those circles. That kind of thing might get you respect in Moscow, but not Davos.
                                        ... Capitalism created new forms of property ownership that divorced ownership from local communities. Even more critically, however, capitalism’s essential fact (per Schumpeter) is creative destruction. The old must be swept aside in order to create space for innovation. The process inevitably sweeps aside not just antiquated products but also traditions, ways of work, communities, and even human lives.
                                  This process is now so well accepted—even among many conservatives—that free market principles are presented “as ironclad laws about which we have no choice. Dwindling manufacturing jobs, technological displacement, global flows of labor and capital—we are told we have no alternative.” In such an environment, unregulated capitalism comes into conflict with those strains of conservatism that place paramount value on the permanent things.
                                    Also:
                                              The radical free market theories espoused by Friedman and his progeny, however, have not fared so well in recent decades, either at the policy or the theoretical level. They also make a poor fit for an increasingly populist conservative base. Of all the conservative strains, the populist ones have always been the most skeptical of free markets. They favor a vast array of policies abhorrent to libertarians, including limits on free trade and immigration and support for a strong government social safety network. In contrast, the constituency for libertarian free market policies is minuscule.
                                               Moreover, to the extent that free market capitalist theories have been given effect under American law, they have rarely served conservatism well. Conservatives have long valued a humane political economy, but the alliance between big business and the GOP has increasingly diminished the value of work in both the real economy and the moral economy. This is not to deny that capitalism (of various kinds—though certainly not always the libertarian kind) has produced great wealth and rising standards of living over recent centuries. It is simply to point out that the economy is now characterized by dramatic disparities in income and wealth, even while growth and productivity have been relatively low in recent decades. Although real earnings for most workers have stagnated, select portions of the new elites—especially in finance and technology—have profited beyond the dreams of avarice. And those elites who have benefited most from today’s market economy are increasingly unlikely to support conservative values.
                                          Controlling for divorce rates, religiosity, and socioeconomic status, he found that while 65 percent of women and 72 percent of men with one sexual partner in their lifetime reported being “very happy” with their marriage, that number drops to 60 and 64 percent, respectively, when adding even one other premarital sexual partner.  That number further drops with each additional sexual partner, until we get down to 55 and 59 percent satisfaction with one’s marriage above 10 sexual partners.

                                          Sunday, October 28, 2018

                                          October 28, 2018 -- A Quick Run Around the Web

                                          "Chain Link Gate Forcible Entry" - Irons and Ladders (5 min.)

                                          • "Pre-Assault Body Language Indicators"--Schafer's Self-Defense Corner. The list of indicators are: (1) Walking with their arms out of sync with their feet; (2) Lowering of their body; (3) Evasive eye contact; (4) Rapid or heavy breathing; (5) Visible eeffects of adrenaline; (6) Someone “Quartering Off”; (7)  Raised, hidden, or busy hands; (8) Visible signs of playing out the attack beforehand in their head. The author discusses each of these points in more detail, so be sure to read the whole article.
                                          • A couple from Greg Ellifritz concerning surviving a riot: "Post Election Riots?" and "Post Election Violence Part II- Surviving the Flash Mob". The main point, as is often in the case of self-defense, is to be aware of what is going on so that you can avoid problems in the first place. As such, Ellifritz suggests watching for signs such as massing police, masked looters or protesters, violent behavior, or lighting fires. I would also add watching out for a change in the makeup of a crowd, such as a sudden increase in young people, change in racial/ethnic makeup, and so on. And, of course, the presence of protesters. Ellifritz also recommends:
                                                  If, despite your best efforts to avoid problem areas, you find yourself surrounded by a  mob or overtaken by a riot, quickly get your back to a wall.  That way you won’t be surrounded and will only have to deal with a few people at a time.  I’ve found this tactic works very well.  If you fade back to a wall and stop moving, often the crowd will ignore you and pass right by.
                                                    Once you get your back to a wall, organize yourself and plan your escape.  If you are wearing a backpack, bag, or purse, swing it around to the front side of your body where it can serve as a shield (a panel from an old ballistic vest carried in the back pocket of your backpack will give you even more comfort).  This also prevents thieves and looters from trying to take it from you.
                                                       Then take a look at the crowd.  Look for gaps.  Your goal is to look far enough ahead and move from gap to gap, exploiting the openings in the crowd.  Holding both arms in front of you with your hands together in a wedge shape will help get you through the swarming people.  Move along walls if you can with your “wedge” out in front of you, deflecting people off to the side.  Turning your shoulders will also help.  If you are a larger or taller male the “swim” and “knife” technique you used on the defensive line playing football can also be used with great effect.
                                                Ellifritz recommends having some sort of less lethal weapons, such as pepper spray or a baton, can be useful to dissuade a protester, in his or her attack. He also suggests that if you have to resort to lethal force, a knife may be a better option than a handgun in many circumstances because it is less likely to cause panic or attract the immediate attention of police. If you do have to use a firearm, do so discretely and from a retention position, which he describes. 
                                                        If you are in a vehicle, Ellifritz recommends that you stay in the car, if possible, and keep moving.
                                                Don’t stop and allow them to open your doors or break your windows to drag you out.  I wouldn’t intentionally run someone over (unless that person posed a lethal threat to me), but I wouldn’t stop either.  Pick a route (over the curb if necessary) and slowly drive through the crowd.  Your car will likely be damaged, but you will be out of the mess soon.
                                                        Equipment wise, Ellifritz recommends pepper spray, a bandanna or similar to cover your nose and mouth should police use tear gas (but he suggests holding it over your face rather than tying around your head because the latter makes you look like one of the trouble-makers), protective glasses or sunglasses, replacement contact lenses (if you wear them) because tear gas will contaminate any lenses you are wearing, sturdy shoes or boots that you can use for running, and a flash light.
                                                       He covers a lot more, so be sure to read both articles.
                                                Armed citizens can make a difference, and as more Americans obtain carry permits, more Americans will be on-scene and able to react. Moreover, what’s missing from the data is any indication that armed citizens make the crisis worse. The stereotype of carry-permit holders spraying panicked gunfire is simply wrong.
                                                  1. Sterilize your hands with soap and water.
                                                    2. Put on gloves or other hand protection.
                                                      3. Remove any loose clothing or objects covering the wound. Don’t remove clothing that’s stuck to the wound.
                                                        4. Keep a hand over the wound while preparing a dressing. Protect your hand with a glove or other hand protection. If possible, have someone else put their hand over the wound. If no one else is available, have the injured person cover the wound with their hand if they’re still able to do so.
                                                          5. Find a chest seal or sterile, medical-grade plastic, or tape to seal the wound. If you don’t have medical plastic, use a clean Ziploc bag or a credit card for the wound. Use your hands if you have no other option.
                                                            6. If possible, ask the person to breathe out to release any excess air.
                                                              7. Place tape, plastic, or a chest seal over any hole that’s sucking in air, including entry and exit wounds. Make sure no air enters any wound.
                                                                8. Secure the tape or seal with occlusive dressing or similar wrapping material that can create a water and airtight seal. Make sure the seal has at least one open side to let out air without letting air in.
                                                                  9. Remove the seal if you notice symptoms of tension pneumothorax, or a buildup of air in the chest. This happens when a lung leaks air into the chest and builds pressure. This can cause extremely low blood pressure (shock) and be fatal. Symptoms include crackling sounds when the person breathes in or out (subcutaneous emphysema), lip or finger blueness (cyanosis), enlarged neck veins (jugular vein distention), short, shallow breaths, and one side of the chest appearing larger than the other.
                                                                    Keep the person on their side unless this makes it harder for them to breathe. Let out as much excess air as possible from the chest while making sure that the person can still breathe.


                                                                    "Preppers will become Outlaws after SHTF"--Survival Prepping for Normal People (17 min.)
                                                                    The author warns that the biggest threat to prepper after SHTF won't be the federal government, but local and, maybe, state governments. Local governments are the one that are most likely to seek out "hoarders" and confiscate their stores.
                                                                            Consider the terms tov and ra, conventionally translated, as I wrote before, as “good” and “evil.” At every stage of the world’s creation, G-d pronounced it tov before proceeding to the next stage. On the creation of mankind, He pronounced it tov me’od (“very good”), and there is no indication thereafter that He changed his mind.
                                                                                Ra does not actually mean “evil” in the English sense of the word. Some glimmering of its actual meaning can be ascertained from some of the other ways that the root is used. For instance, in Psalms II, 9 King David beseeches G-d to deal with his enemies: Tero‘em beshevet barzel (“You should smash them with an iron rod”), or in Isaiah XXIV, 19 the prophet begins his description of an earthquake: Ra’o hithro‘a‘a ha’aretz ("the Earth is completely shaken”). From these, we can see that it means something like “unstable, broken, dysfunctional” and therefore “bad.”
                                                                                 Human beings come into this world innocent of anything, but possessed of a capacity for good (commonly termed the yetzer hatov) as well as a destructive capacity, commonly termed the yetzer hara. The yetzer hara presents all the physical urges, the needs and wants, of the physical body which, like everything else in the physical realm, is subject to entropy -- that is, it wears out and falls apart. But he is also provided with a soul, whose highest purpose is to control those urges and channel them into positive actions.
                                                                                    To this end, children are provided with parents and other mentors, whose job it is to teach them right from wrong and self-control, so that his soul is capable of taking charge and leading a proper, sanctified life. Until that moment when he is capable of taking over, any “sins” that the child commits are the responsibility of the parent.
                                                                                      So when does a Jewish individual begin to sin? At the age of bar or bath mitzva. These terms mean “son or daughter of the commandments” because on reaching that age, they become subject to the 613 commandments in the Torah, and their parents are no longer responsible for their actions. This landmark occurs when a boy is 13 years old and a girl is 12. One of the most emotional moments of the bar mitzva ceremony comes when the boy’s father pronounces the blessing, baruch sheptarani me‘onsho shel ze (“Blessed is He who has exempted me from this one’s punishment”).
                                                                                       What is the Jewish concept of the satan? Well, we agree with the Christians that he is a mal’ach, conventionally translated “angel,” but there’s nothing “fallen” about him. He works for the same Divine Boss as all the other mal’achim. Think of the satan (the word means “adversary”) as the proctor of an exam. The proctor isn’t actively rooting for you to fail the test; to the contrary, he wants you to pass. But he administers a tough test, to be certain that it tests all your capabilities and that you’ve mastered the material, i.e. the life lessons available from one’s parents and other mentors. If you manage to pass the test, no one is happier than the satan.
                                                                                  Besides gang members and mobs of young angry men, the Central American caravan making its way into the United States also consists of Africans, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans and Indians. Judicial Watch is covering the crisis from the Guatemalan-Honduran border this week and observed that the popular mainstream media narrative of desperate migrants—many of them women and children—seeking a better life is hardly accurate. Guatemalan intelligence officials confirmed that the caravan that originated in the northern Honduran city of San Pedro Sula includes a multitude of Special Interest Aliens (SIA) from the countries listed above as well as other criminal elements and gang members.
                                                                                    Tellingly, the members of the so-called caravan have rejected offers to stay in Mexico under refugee status. Also, a reminder that these putative immigrants come from some of the most violent and corrupt countries in the world, and will likely bring their problems with them.
                                                                                    •  "Matthew Shepard Is the World's Most Famous Gay Hate Crime Victim. But Was He Really Killed for Being Gay?"--Katie Herzog at The Stranger. Shepard was beaten and tortured and left to die near Laramie, Wyoming, on December 6, 1998, and died 6 days later. The media promulgated the story that he was killed because he was gay, and his killers were homophobes. His death provided impetus for extending hate crime designation to crimes against homosexuals because of sexual orientation. Herzog challenges the common belief about the incident, noting that Shepard was not killed because he was gay, but over a large quantity of crystal meth. For instance, a 2014 Guardian article noted:
                                                                                            Jimenez found that Matthew was addicted to and dealing crystal meth and had dabbled in heroin. He also took significant sexual risks and was being pimped alongside Aaron McKinney, one of his killers, with whom he’d had occasional sexual encounters. He was HIV positive at the time of his death. ...
                                                                                              Matthew’s drug abuse, and the fact that he knew one of his killers prior to the attack, was never explored in court. Neither was the rumour that the killers knew that he had access to a shipment of crystal meth with a street value of $10,000 which they wanted to steal.
                                                                                        Herzog explains:
                                                                                                 That's right: One of Shepard's killers was queer. Jimenez found through his reporting that McKinney had been Shepard's lover. Sure, it's possible that he had some internalized homophobia, but the narrative that Shepard was killed by bigot rednecks who targeted him for being gay is not, according to Jimenez, actually true. They killed him over meth.
                                                                                                   What's more, Jimenez argues that Laramie wasn't a hotbed of idiocy and homophobia either. It was a college town, home to the University of Wyoming. And like most college towns, it was, and is, quite liberal and even gay-friendly. That truth got lost as the story spread, and Laramie became a parody of white trash ignorance and bigotry.
                                                                                                     After Shepard's body was found, a couple of men in the local gay community contacted the press as well as gay rights groups, who connected the murder to the state legislature's recent failure to pass hate crime legislation. The story that this was a hate crime began to spread, and in the days immediately following his death, a vigil was held for Shepard on the steps of the U.S. Capitol. Celebrities like Ellen DeGeneres, Ted Kennedy, Barbra Streisand, Elton John, and Madonna all got involved, and his funeral was attended by over 1,000 people, with many of Shepard's friends dressed as angels.
                                                                                              • Some of you may already be aware of the lawsuit currently being pursued against Harvard over it's alleged discrimination against Asians in its admissions. The case is more important than most people realize because Harvard, along with a handful of other institutions, are a major gateway to entering the class of elites that run our government, large businesses, and other major institutions. However, there is more to the story than is being reported in the main stream media. Ron Unz, who did so much of the original research that exposed Ivy League bias against Asians, writes in his article: "American Pravda: Racial Discrimination at Harvard":
                                                                                                       The evidence of the recent NMS [National Merit] semifinalist lists seems the most conclusive of all, given the huge statistical sample sizes involved. As discussed earlier, these students constitute roughly the highest 0.5 percent in academic ability, the top 16,000 high school seniors who should be enrolling at the Ivy League and America’s other most elite academic universities. In California, white Gentile names outnumber Jewish ones by over 8-to-1; in Texas, over 20-to-1; in Florida and Illinois, around 9-to-1. Even in New York, America’s most heavily Jewish state, there are more than two high-ability white Gentile students for every Jewish one. Based on the overall distribution of America’s population, it appears that approximately 65–70 percent of America’s highest ability students are non-Jewish whites, well over ten times the Jewish total of under 6 percent.
                                                                                                          Needless to say, these proportions are considerably different from what we actually find among the admitted students at Harvard and its elite peers, which today serve as a direct funnel to the commanding heights of American academics, law, business, and finance. Based on reported statistics, Jews approximately match or even outnumber non-Jewish whites at Harvard and most of the other Ivy League schools, which seems wildly disproportionate. Indeed, the official statistics indicate that non-Jewish whites at Harvard are America’s most under-represented population group, enrolled at a much lower fraction of their national population than blacks or Hispanics, despite having far higher academic test scores.
                                                                                                           When examining statistical evidence, the proper aggregation of data is critical. Consider the ratio of the recent 2007–2011 enrollment of Asian students at Harvard relative to their estimated share of America’s recent NMS semifinalists, a reasonable proxy for the high-ability college-age population, and compare this result to the corresponding figure for whites. The Asian ratio is 63 percent, slightly above the white ratio of 61 percent, with both these figures being considerably below parity due to the substantial presence of under-represented racial minorities such as blacks and Hispanics, foreign students, and students of unreported race. Thus, there appears to be no evidence for racial bias against Asians, even excluding the race-neutral impact of athletic recruitment, legacy admissions, and geographical diversity.
                                                                                                             However, if we separate out the Jewish students, their ratio turns out to be 435 percent, while the residual ratio for non-Jewish whites drops to just 28 percent, less than half of even the Asian figure. As a consequence, Asians appear under-represented relative to Jews by a factor of seven, while non-Jewish whites are by far the most under-represented group of all, despite any benefits they might receive from athletic, legacy, or geographical distribution factors. The rest of the Ivy League tends to follow a similar pattern, with the overall Jewish ratio being 381 percent, the Asian figure at 62 percent, and the ratio for non-Jewish whites a low 35 percent, all relative to their number of high-ability college-age students.
                                                                                                               Just as striking as these wildly disproportionate current numbers have been the longer enrollment trends. In the three decades since I graduated Harvard, the presence of white Gentiles has dropped by as much as 70 percent, despite no remotely comparable decline in the relative size or academic performance of that population; meanwhile, the percentage of Jewish students has actually increased. This period certainly saw a very rapid rise in the number of Asian, Hispanic, and foreign students, as well as some increase in blacks. But it seems rather odd that all of these other gains would have come at the expense of whites of Christian background, and none at the expense of Jews.
                                                                                                          Discussing the statistics further, Unz observes:
                                                                                                            Based on these figures, Jewish students were roughly 1,000% more likely to be enrolled at Harvard and the rest of the Ivy League than white Gentiles of similar ability. This was an absolutely astonishing result given that under-representation in the range of 20% or 30% is often treated by courts as powerful prima facie evidence of racial discrimination.

                                                                                                            Friday, October 26, 2018

                                                                                                            October 26, 2018 -- A Quick Run Around The Web

                                                                                                            "A basic bug out bag"--Survival Prepping for Normal People (14 min.)
                                                                                                            The author discusses and demonstrates what items to put into a basic bug-out-bag (BOB).

                                                                                                                    At the property line I asked about the NO TRESPASSING signs and the prepper obsession with security. He said the signs were to ward off a poaching neighbor; he has no problem with respectful people on his land. As for security, things aren’t getting any better, and when they get really bad, he said, two things will be important: keeping away people who are trying to steal what you’ve had the foresight to stockpile and fighting to protect your freedom and your family. “I don’t like violence,” he said, “but you have to protect your wife and kids.”
                                                                                                                    “Don’t you think Christianity demands pacifism?” I asked.
                                                                                                                       He said he knew Jesus said to turn the other cheek, but added that he also said to sell your cloak and buy a sword if you don’t have one. “I’m not going to be meek,” he said.
                                                                                                                        “The meek will inherit the earth,” I said.
                                                                                                                           “I know, I know,” he said, and looked at the ground.
                                                                                                                             When I hazarded that prepping seemed misanthropic, Tory countered, “I love people. I wouldn’t have you here if I didn’t. I wouldn’t have a store. Without people there’d be no community, no survival. A lone survivor in the woods? Good luck with that!” His voice was warm.
                                                                                                                        I have to admit that I used to struggle with understanding what Christ meant by "the meek" ... until I read Marcus Wynne's novel, The Sword of Michael. (You can read my review here). Wynne described a character that is meek and loving, yet also strong and willing and able to protect his friends and, for that matter, humanity as a whole. What the character illustrated was that "meekness" and "humility" for Christians was to submit to the will of God and recognize that God is the source of our gifts and abilities, rather than seeking glory for ourselves. This is very different from what the secular world wants us to believe constitutes "meekness" or "humility." The secular world wants us to believe that the meek person is essentially a dumb animal willing to put up with anything and everything, but that is far from the truth. Even if you don't like modern fantasy novels, I would suggest reading Wynne's book just because it is such a good example of what is real meekness. And then, for my LDS readers, consider the example of Captain Moroni.
                                                                                                                                  Second, one man fired warning shots into the ground to scare off some looters ... and was arrested and jailed for discharging a firearm within city limits. The lessons here is that the government is not here to help, and don't use your firearm unless you can claim self-defense.
                                                                                                                                    Third, one of the men interviewed had distributed firearms to his neighbors who were defenseless. A few points in this regard. (a) You had better have neighbors you can trust before you hand them a weapon; not only that they won't turn and use the weapon on you, but that you can trust them to be responsible in their handling and use of the weapon. (b) Be careful of running afoul of laws regarding the transfer of weapons. As illustrated by the guy firing the warning shots, the police are not necessarily give you a pass just because you are in the midst of a disaster. And, (c), be aware that if the person missuses the weapon, you could be held legally liable under various theories including, but not limited to, negligent entrustment. 
                                                                                                                              "How Seamless Steel Tubing is Made: "Walls Without Welds" ~ 1950 US Steel Pipe Manufacturing"--Jeff Quitney (3 min.). Nothing particularly special about this video. I just thought it was a fascinating process. 
                                                                                                                              • The so-called "MAGAbomber" has been captured, but don't expect this story to stay in the news for long: the suspect is a Native American named Cesar Altier Sayoc, so it doesn't really fit the narrative.
                                                                                                                              • Liberals really are crazy:
                                                                                                                              In his remarkable book The Righteous Mind: Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion, Haidt recalls a telling experiment. He and his colleagues Brian Nosek and Jesse Graham sought to discover how well conservative and what Haidt terms ‘liberal’ (ie: progressive) students understood one another by having them answer moral questions as they thought their political opponents would answer them. “The results were clear and consistent,” remarks Haidt. “In all analyses, conservatives were more accurate than liberals.” Asked to think the way a liberal thinks, conservatives answered moral questions just as the liberal would answer them, but liberal students were unable to do the reverse. Rather, they seemed to put moral ideas into the mouths of conservatives that they don’t hold. To put it bluntly, Haidt and his colleagues found that progressives don’t understand conservatives the way conservatives understand progressives. This he calls the ‘conservative advantage,’ and it goes a long way in explaining the different ways each side deals with opinions unlike their own. People get angry at what they don’t understand, and an all-progressive education ensures that they don’t understand.

                                                                                                                              Thursday, October 25, 2018

                                                                                                                              Survival Weapons: The CETME/G-3/HK 91

                                                                                                                              CETME Model C with clamp on bipod.
                                                                                                                                      In this continuing series on survival weapons, I look at the 7.62x51 NATO (.308 Winchester) roller-lock battle rifles: the Spanish CETME C, HK G-3, and their civilian versions. I consider these rifles together because the HK G-3 (and its civilian version, the HK 91) are direct descendants of the CETME C, and, to a certain extent, there is some interchangeability of parts between the two. In fact, the differences between CETME C and the HK91 are probably no greater than can be found between different versions of the FAL.

                                                                                                                              HK G3A3--note the 3rd generation wide handguard (Source)

                                                                                                                              General Information:

                                                                                                                                     For the general information, I will rely on the military versions of the rifles since there will be little or no difference between civilian and military versions as to weight, length, etc.:

                                                                                                                              CETME C:

                                                                                                                              Cartridge:  7.62x51 NATO
                                                                                                                              Operation:  Delayed blowback using rollers.
                                                                                                                              Feed: 20-round detachable box magazine.
                                                                                                                              Weight: 4.2 kg (9.3 lbs.) with wood stock and handguard
                                                                                                                              Length: 1,051 mm. (41.4 inches)
                                                                                                                              Barrel: 450 mm. (17.7 inches)

                                                                                                                              HK G-3:

                                                                                                                              Cartridge:  7.62x51 NATO
                                                                                                                              Operation:  Delayed blowback using rollers.
                                                                                                                              Feed:  20-round detachable box magazine.
                                                                                                                              Weight: 4.25 kg (9.4 lbs) with fixed stock.
                                                                                                                              Length: 1,020 mm (40.2 inches) with fixed stock.
                                                                                                                              Barrel: 450 mm (17.7 inches).

                                                                                                                                    According to Jane's Infantry Weapons, these rifles use a barrel with a right hand 1:12 (1:305mm) twist. This twist rate should work well for bullet weights (assuming standard construction) of 150 to 180 grains.

                                                                                                                              History:

                                                                                                                                     The first widely manufactured and distributed "assault rifle" was the Stg. 44, which used the German 7.92x33 "Kurz" ("Short")  cartridge. The weapon and its cartridge found instant popularity with German troops during WWII, and impressed the Allies, especially the Soviets. Although the Stg. 44 made use of steel stampings, it was still a mechanically complex rifle and the Germans attempted to develop less expensive and easier to manufacture weapons. One of these was the Stg. 45(M), which used a blowback system using a system of locking rollers along side the bolt to delay the opening of the bolt until pressure levels in the chamber fell to a level safe for the bolt to retract and load the next cartridge, but made use of the same cartridge and magazine as the Stg. 44.



                                                                                                                              Stg. 45(M)

                                                                                                                                   The Stg. 45 never developed beyond prototype stage, and with the collapse of Nazi Germany at the close of WWII, certain of the design team, including engineer Ludwig Vorgrimler, fled to Spain to found Centro de Estudios Tecnicos de Materiales Especiales (CETME), where they worked to perfect their design. One of the key issues resolved was the problem of cases sticking in the chamber, which was overcome by machining flutes into the chamber to reduce friction. Cartridges fired from a roller-lock weapon, be it the CETME/G-3, the MP5, or G-33/HK-93 bear telltale blackened lines along the length of the shell casing because of these flutes. If these flutes become clogged with grime, or are machined an insufficient depth, the friction will increase and prevent reliable cycling.

                                                                                                                                    CETME initially developed versions of their rifle for an intermediate cartridge, but with NATO adopting the 7.62x51, Spain decided it also should adopt the same cartridge, although it was not a member of NATO. Thus, the design was modified for the more powerful cartridge and adopted for use by the Spanish military as the Model C. Production began in 1957, and continued through 1979 with remarkably little change or variation in the design.

                                                                                                                              Cut-away detail of the roller lock system with bolt closed and locked in chamber (Source). As one author describes the operation of the roller-lock system: "For those unfamiliar with the HK roller locking system, the locking piece is critical to the firearm’s safe and reliable function. With the bolt closed, the locking piece is the part that pushes against the rollers and forces them into the recesses within the rifle’s trunnion. After a round is fired, the chamber pressure pushes the bolt and carrier rearward and the rollers press against the locking piece until it has moved back far enough for them to retreat into the bolt head. With the rollers clear of the trunnion, the bolt and carrier can freely cycle."
                                                                                                                                    The roller-lock design probably would have been a mere curiosity but for post-War politics. Along with the NATO countries deciding on a common cartridge, they (except for the United States) also decided on a common rifle: the FN FAL. Germany initially obtained FALs directly from FN (designated the G1), but sought to obtain a license to manufacture the rifles in Germany. Considering Germany's aggressive past, Belgium would not license production of the FAL to West Germany, however. Looking around, Germany decided to adopt the CETME rifle, with some modifications, as the G-3 beginning in 1959. These modifications would eventually included different sights, and a different trigger system.

                                                                                                                              Early model HK G-3. Compare with the CETME at the top of the page (Source)
                                                                                                                                      Although early G-3s were remarkably similar to the CETME C, including almost identical wood stocks and flip up sights, West Germany refined and modified the design over time, improving the sights, changing to plastic furniture (only the pistol grip on the CETME C is plastic--the rest of the furniture is made of poplar wood), and making some changes to the cocking tube and fore-end. West Germany also offered collapsible stock versions. More significantly, West Germany took the design and applied it to submachine guns (the MP-5 family), light machine guns, and a line of 5.56 NATO caliber rifles and carbines. The German G-3 was also exported to or produced under license in a large number of countries, including Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, Nigeria, Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan.

                                                                                                                              This appears to be an HK91 or semi-auto version of the G-3--the third pin to the front of the receiver is missing as is the paddle mag release. However, note the second generation "slim" handguard and what appears to be an after-market shell deflector (Source). The color of the furniture is also different, with the pistol grip being more of an olive green color and the rest of the furniture is a brighter green color.
                                                                                                                              Description:

                                                                                                                                     The CETME and G-3 were designed to make use of extensive stampings. Both the upper and lower receivers are made of steel stampings. (However, you may occasionally run across some American made upper receivers that are cast stainless steel). Except for the attachment point for the rear sight, the upper receivers are identical. Lower receivers are also interchangeable.

                                                                                                                                     The upper receiver is folded to a mostly tubular shape, but including a magazine well at the front. The trunnion in which the barrel is inserted is welded into the front of the upper receiver. The barrel is pinned into place inside the trunnion. Extending from the upper receiver, on the top, is a cocking tube, welded to upper receiver, which contains the cocking handle mechanism and an extension of the bolt carrier.

                                                                                                                              The "Navy" lower (Source). Note the rear leg of the ejector poking up at the rear, and the hammer is fully forward.
                                                                                                                                      The lower receiver is generally of stamped steel, although HK later developed a one piece polymer version (often called the navy version). Plastic grips slide over a grip frame and screw into place. The lower receiver contains the trigger, selector and hammer mechanism. The trigger, etc., interestingly, are fit into a separate metal box (the trigger pack) that then fits into the lower receiver. The lower receiver fits in behind the magazine well, and is attached by two removable pins at the rear. In the military version, the front is also attached via a removable pin, but due to ATF regulations, the front pin and pin hole is omitted in civilian versions (although it is not uncommon to see weapons with a dummied up front pin to maintain the original appearance).

                                                                                                                                     On the right side of the magazine well is a push button magazine release. However, this release is so far forward that it cannot be operated without breaking your hold on the pistol grip. To assist with this, the military versions of both the CETME and the HK have a central paddle release to actuate the release and allow you to quickly remove the magazine with your left hand. These are rare on civilian versions, but can be easily added by drilling a hole through one side of the receiver and part way through the opposite side (don't drill all of the way through, as that would, in the eyes of the ATF, convert the receiver to one for an automatic weapon), and threading it with a screw to act as the pivot point for the paddle.

                                                                                                                                      The barrel and cocking tube are held together at their front by what is sometimes termed the triple frame because it basically looks like there are three holes: the lower hole through which the barrel protrudes, the middle hole into which the cocking tube is inserted, and the upper hole which is where the front sight is located. The triple frame is pinned to the barrel.

                                                                                                                                     The cocking tube has a long slot down its length to allowed the cocking handle to be pulled back to cock the weapon. At the rearmost of the slot is a notch into which the cocking handle can be rotated and used to lock the action open. The famous "HK slap" (video) is the strike against the side of the cocking handle to knock it out of the notch and allowing the bolt carrier to slam forward.

                                                                                                                                     The butt stock attaches to a stamped metal sleeve that fits over the rear of the receivers. There are two pins that hold together both of the receivers and the sleeve. Attached to this sleeve is the rod and recoil spring that slides into the back of the upper extension of the bolt carrier.

                                                                                                                              G-3A4 with an HK collapsible stock. Also note the paddle magazine release ahead of the trigger guard. (Source)

                                                                                                                                     As mentioned, there are numerous small differences between the CETME and the HK, but also some interchangeability of parts. For instance, furniture is generally interchangeable with little or no modification. Magazines are interchangeable (although the HK magazines are better designed, in my opinion, and substantially cheaper). The rollers used on the bolts to lock the bolt closed are the same. My understanding is that the firing pins are also interchangeable.

                                                                                                                                    Although the trigger mechanisms are very different between the two weapons, you could replace the complete trigger pack from one with another (or, for that matter, the complete lower receiver), although the position of "safe" and "fire" might be different.

                                                                                                                                     Operation of the weapons is almost identical, with the exception of the adjustment of the sights and the progression of "safe", "fire" and, on military weapons, "automatic" on the selector.

                                                                                                                              CETME cleaning kit tube with bayonet lug (on top) and contents (Source) As noted in the text, the tube slides into the end of the cocking tube.

                                                                                                                                     Bayonets attach at the same location, but the attachment hardware is different. On the CETME, the plug at the front of the cocking tube is removable, so that a cleaning kit can be slid into the front of the cocking tube. This plug has a thick blade that protrudes out the front over which the handle of the bayonet fits and locks into place. On the HK G-3, the front of the cocking tube is not used for storage (in fact, later models have a reduced diameter cocking tube ahead of the cocking handle), and the cocking tube plug has a hole into which a portion of the bayonet handle protrudes when locked into place. Most civilian weapons have a simple plug in the front of the cocking tube with no provision for a bayonet.

                                                                                                                              Operation:

                                                                                                                                    Loading of the weapon is via a 20-round detachable magazine made of steel or aluminum that is pushed up into the magazine well until it locks. The cocking handle, when the bolt is closed, is folded down at the fore-end of the cocking tube. Holding the pistol grip in the right hand, the left hand is used to pull back on the cocking handle, unfolding it for better purchase, and then drawing all the way to rear to pull the bolt carrier back far enough to feed the first round. The cocking handle is then released--the pressure of the recoil spring will push the bolt carrier forward, picking up and feeding the first round into the chamber. The cocking handle is non-reciprocating.

                                                                                                                                    The selector lever is on the left side of weapon, just above the trigger. It can be manipulated with the thumb. The order of the selections varies between the CETME and the HK weapons. With the CETME, semi-auto fire (single shot) is the upper most selection, followed by "safe," and then "automatic." On the HK, the order is "safe," "single" and "automatic."

                                                                                                                                   The trigger guards on these weapons are of a generous size to allow the use of gloves. The trigger is made of stamped steel and very thick and large. These weapons are notorious for having one of the poorest triggers of any military rifle of that era, having substantial take up and spongy release. Unfortunately, while the triggers can be improved somewhat, they will never be the equal of most other military rifles without changing out portions of the trigger mechanism with custom parts.

                                                                                                                                   Obviously, pulling the trigger will allow one shot on semi-automatic.

                                                                                                                                   These weapons do not have a bolt hold open. Thus, once the ammunition in the magazine is expended, the cocking handle must again be pulled all the way to rear in order to charge the weapon. As noted above, if you need to lock the bolt open, you must pull the cocking handle all of the way to the rear and then rotate it into a notch.

                                                                                                                                   The flash hiders are nearly identical between the CETME and the HK, and is simple bird-cage style designed for fitting of a bayonet or rifle grenade launcher. I've shot my CETME with and without the flash hider in dim light, and can tell you that the flash hider does a good job of reducing what would otherwise be a fairly bright muzzle flash.

                                                                                                                              A G-3 disassembled into its major components. Left to right: Sling, butt stock with recoil rod and spring assembly, lower receiver, trigger pack, bolt assembly, bolt carrier, front handguard, and upper receiver with attached barrel and cocking tube (Source)

                                                                                                                                   To field strip the weapon, there are two pins at the back of the lower receiver that must be removed. The military butt stocks, handily, have two holes into which these pins can be inserted to hold them while cleaning the weapon. With the two pins removed, the butt stock can be pulled loose and the lower receiver swung down out of the way. (Military rifles, with a third pin to the front, will simply hinge on that pin; civilian versions use a shelf to keep the front of the lower receiver in place, so the lower receiver will simply pull off once the rear pins are removed). With the butt stock and recoil spring assembly pulled out, the bolt carrier can then be removed allowing access to the barrel and chamber for cleaning. Assembly is the reverse.

                                                                                                                              Differences in the Selector/Trigger Mechanism:

                                                                                                                                    The CETME actually has a very clever trigger, hammer, sear mechanism. The selector lever is attached to a pin that not only holds the trigger pack into place, but has various notches or cuts that are used to change the weapon from safe, to fire, to auto fire. The primary sear has hooks that are under spring tension from the hammer spring, that catch the hammer and interrupt its action to produce semi-automatic fire. The hooks have long arms extending off the back that rest against the selector pin. In semi-automatic setting, the arms rest on the inside of a notch, and the hooks protrude to interrupt and catch the hammer. However, if the selector is rotated around it will push up the arms on these hooks which withdraw the hooks out of the way, and allow automatic fire. When converting the CETME to semi-automatic fire, one of the easiest methods to make the conversion is to simply cut off these arms so, no matter the position of the selector, the hooks will be extended allowing only semi-auto fire. When in the "safe" position, the notch arrangement on the selector will block the trigger.

                                                                                                                                    But the designers, being German, could not leave this simple arrangement alone. So they added not one, but two safety sears, needlessly complicating the trigger mechanism. The first safety sear fits below the hammer, and will prevent the hammer from falling unless the trigger has been pulled. The second sear fits to the right of the hammer and is under spring tension so it presses up against the bottom of the bolt carrier. As long as the top of the sear is pressed down, the weapon will fire. When the lower receiver is loosened and swung down, the second safety sear is allowed to move up blocking the hammer. This prevents discharge if the weapon is being opened for cleaning. However, most other rifles, including the AR, are perfectly safe without the resort to these additional safety sears and mechanisms, and all it does is complicate the mechanism and drag on the trigger.

                                                                                                                                    The West Germans, when they adopted the CETME, did not like the order on the selector lever, wanting a system that moved from "safe" to "fire" to "automatic." This involved a redesign of the trigger mechanism. HK did not abandon the two safety sears, but instead, used the second safety sear as the sear for automatic fire. Consequently, most civilian semi-auto weapons will have a second groove cut into the bottom of the bolt carrier for the express purpose, if an automatic trigger group is attached, that the bolt carrier can't press down the second safety sear, effectively preventing the weapon from firing. Thus, a civilian HK must have the second safety sear--the auto sear--removed in order to operate. (Of course, removal of the second safety sear has no impact on the CETME trigger group--one could, in theory, install a full auto CETME trigger group into an HK with a semi-auto bolt carrier and, with the second safety sear removed, still be able to switch between semi- and fully-automatic fire without any issues).

                                                                                                                              Differences in the Sights:

                                                                                                                                    Both the CETME and the HK use a rear sight with four settings: an open 100 meter sight, and peep sights ostensibly set for the 200, 300 and 400 meters respectively. Other than that, the two systems are very different.

                                                                                                                              CETME Rear Sight

                                                                                                                                    The CETME rear sight is a "paddle wheel" design that rotates along a horizontal axis. Small detents lock it into place at each of the appropriate positions. Other than switching between ranges, there is no other adjustment possible to the rear sight.

                                                                                                                              CETME front sight. Note the lock screw below the pyramid sight, and the access hole at the top of the protective hood.
                                                                                                                                    The front sight on the CETME is a pyramid style post that screws up and down. The post is slightly offset from center, so that, as it is screwed up and down, it also moves to the right and left of center as it is turned, allowing for adjustment of both windage and elevation. There is a small lock screw on the front of the sight that must be unloosened before adjusting the front sight. Then, using a sight tool, the post sight can be accessed through a hole in the top of the sight cover and screwed up or down.

                                                                                                                              Detail of the rear "drum" sight on the HK rifle (Source)

                                                                                                                                    The rear sight on HK uses a drum arrangement. That is, the three peep holes and open sight are cut into an cylinder set at an incline to allow one edge of the cylinder to project up enough to use an individual peep hole or the open sight. The drum is twisted to select between the different sighting options. The rear sight is also adjustable for windage and elevation.


                                                                                                                              HK style front sight. Note that the protective hood around the front sight is slightly angled, and there is no provision for adjusting the front sight. (Source)
                                                                                                                                   The front sight on the HK is not adjustable. It is an insert that is essentially cut out of sheet steel. Although the normal sight is just a post, there are other shapes available, or even tritium sights.

                                                                                                                                   Both the CETME and HK weapons are designed to accept a scope mount. Scope mounts designed for the HK will work with the CETME. The military "claw" mounts are cumbersome, heavy, and, due to demand from collectors, expensive. Various manufacturers produce aluminum mounts sporting Picatinny rails for mounting optics. Newer civilian weapons often have a  Picatinny rail welded to the top of the upper receiver to allow for optics.

                                                                                                                              Differences in Furniture:

                                                                                                                                   Furniture between the designs is interchangeable with little or no modifications.  Pistol grips designed to slip over a grip frame are completely interchangeable between the two systems. However, CETME pistol grips are made of a smooth black plastic, while HK offered black and green pistol grips with some slight texturing. I've also seen photographs of tan stocks for the HK apparently manufactured for--or by--Saudi Arabia.

                                                                                                                                    The CETME used the same wooden butt stock and handguard throughout its manufacture history. CETME wooden furniture can be used on HK rifles, although some modification may be necessary. The handguard on the CETME uses a screw to tighten down and secure the handguard. The HK system uses a pin to secure the handguard. While the HK handguard can be shifted to the CETME without modification, the CETME will require that the screw be removed and the hole enlarged to accept the front pin.

                                                                                                                                    HK began by using wooden furniture almost indistinguishable from the CETME. It then switched to using synthetic furniture with a narrow (slim) handguard design that was available in either black or green. HK later offered a wider handguard design (the fat handguard). Any of these handguards can be used on the CETME without modification. In addition, there are many manufacturers that produce alternative handguards, including those with rails, what can be used with either the CETME or the HK.

                                                                                                                                   The standard butt stock for the HK is a fixed stock which attaches to a steel sleeve with the recoil rod and spring. HK also offered a collapsible stock which is popular. Adapters for using AR style stocks are also available.

                                                                                                                                   Butt stocks for the HK can be used on the CETME, although the recoil spring and rod system requires a slight modification when switching between the two systems. Basically, the retainer system at the front of the recoil rod is slightly different shape between the CETME and the HK. The HK system uses a wide nylon washer that will not fit into the CETME bolt carrier. The washer can be sanded down to reshape it so it will work, but, if you have a CETME butt stock and recoil rod, it is probably easier to simply remove the retaining piece from the the tip of the CETME recoil rod and install it on the HK recoil rod.

                                                                                                                               Continued Availability:

                                                                                                                                    The CETME/HK G-3 system has had a long and successful history in many areas of the world, including adoption as a general infantry rifle by not only West Germany, but also Turkey, Pakistan, and other Middle-Eastern countries. CETME produced semi-auto sporter models that were imported briefly into the United States, but are rare. Parts kits for the CETME have generally been available and allowed both hobbyists and a few companies to produce them domestically.

                                                                                                                                     Century is the primary domestic manufacturer using CETME parts kits and US manufactured parts. Century initially produced a model called the Century CETME which earned a poor reputation because of poor quality control, one of the biggest problems being that Century would grind down the back of the bolt in order to adjust head spacing instead of switching out different sized rollers as one should. CETME revamped production and released the C308 a few years ago making use of original CETME parts and US manufactured HK style parts. From what I've seen, the C308 has gotten fairly solid reviews.

                                                                                                                                    HK also produced the civilian HK 91 which was imported until import restrictions arising as a consequence of the 1994 assault weapons ban forced HK out of the market. The availability of parts kits from decommissioned military weapons allowed several domestic manufacturers, including PTR, to continue manufacture and sales. PTR eventually purchased G3 machining from Pakistan and continues to manufacture the firearms in various models.

                                                                                                                                    While there is not the supply of after-market parts and accessories as you find for the AR or, even, the AK system, there are plenty of parts and accessories allowing you to modernize your rifle. I have found RTG Parts the best (and least expensive) source for spare parts.

                                                                                                                              Comments and General Discussion: 

                                                                                                                                    The CETME/HK design is one of the three .308 "classic" battle rifle designs, the others being the FN FAL and the M-14/Springfield M1A. The primary reason for selecting one of these rifles, or another 7.62 NATO design, is the caliber and power of the round allowing one to reach out and touch an enemy at distances beyond 300 yards or behind light cover.

                                                                                                                                     In addition, for the prepper, the cartridge is a proven hunting cartridge that, according to common belief, can play double duty as both a defensive cartridge and for hunting medium or large game. This common belief does not hold up very well under examination.

                                                                                                                                     For one thing, you should avoid using commercial hunting ammunition in a military 7.62 rifle. As one source explains:
                                                                                                                              7.62 NATO ammunition is loaded to a maximum average pressure of 50,000psi and proof tested at 67,000psi. For reliable feeding in the field, military 7.62 NATO rifles have over sized chambers and military brass is made thick to allow expansion to the chamber walls without cases splitting.  Sporting .308 ammunition is made to the same sized outside dimensions as 7.62 NATO ammunition but lacks the thickness of brass to flow and fill a loose military chamber with the possibility of split or ruptured cases as a result. Commercial hunting ammunition can be loaded up to 62,000psi. 
                                                                                                                                    The efficacy of the full metal jacket 7.62 NATO is also often overrated. The full metal jacket ammunition is not as lethal as some claim because it generally will not deform or fragment, even at ranges as close as 2.5 m. (See here for full article). Thus, the round is not a magic "one-shot, one-stop" round. Other bullets may offer better performance. The Germans and Danes, for instance, used a bullet employing a cannelure which was capable of fragmentation out to 100 meters. The U.S. military's new 7.62 M80A1 EPR is also designed to enhance fragmentation while retaining good penetration, but good luck getting your hands on any! Hollow-point bullets will tend to deform and fragment very quickly. While this makes hollow-point a poor choice for hunting because of the shallow wounding depth, it makes them a better choice for defensive purposes.

                                                                                                                                     Although you may be tempted to stock up on inexpensive soft-tip ammunition, keep in mind, as a general rule, that soft-tipped .308 ammunition will not expand and produce hydrostatic shock at less than 2,600 fps. Something to take into account when shooting out of a relatively short barreled weapon such as the CETME/HK, which may only be 2,600 fps at the muzzle. Of course, if you hand load ammunition, you probably could pair an appropriate partition style hunting bullet with a charge that would be safe to use in a military rifle.

                                                                                                                                    In short, surplus military ammunition will, generally speaking, be very poor for hunting, and not much better for combat. Conversely, sporting loads may be overpressure for military rifles. Thus, the "duel use" for the 7.62 NATO rifles is exaggerated, at least for off-the-shelf ammunition.

                                                                                                                                    So, where does the extra energy on target come in useful? As one author explains:
                                                                                                                              The benefit of 7.62mm is that it has more energy.  The impact energy of the 7.62mm is more than twice of the 5.56.  Energy is only needed if you want o penetrate body armor or RHA (rolled homogeneous armor).  If the target is not protected, that energy level is not really needed.
                                                                                                                                    The one feature that really distinguishes the CETME/G-3 from other .308 battle rifles is the roller-lock system. Because the system does not use a gas system, it has the reputation of being rather indifferent to the quality or charge of ammunition. That is, there is no gas system that needs to be adjusted for different quality of ammo or to compensate for a dirty weapon. Also, it can handle higher pressure ammunition than the FAL or M14/M1A without damaging the weapon. Timothy Mullin, in his book Testing the War Weapons, makes note of this, writing:
                                                                                                                              Normally, we assume that the lack of a gas system will create problems as the weapon gets dirty or if the ammunition is underpowered. On the H&K G3, however, the weapon does not suffer from such problems, because the stronger the ammunition the stronger the roller-locking system will hold. And because it has no gas system, it does not clog from the gas and residue that are constantly flushed back into the rifle action as is common with so many gas-operated weapons.
                                                                                                                              (p. 135). Based on its successful history in combat and adaptation into versions used as light machine guns, the weapon is capable of handling sustained firing and harsh field conditions.

                                                                                                                                    I  believe that the CETME/HK system has a higher potential for accuracy because there is no operating rod or gas pistons, but is limited by the poor trigger. That a modified version, called the PSG-1, has led a successful career as a sniper rifle speaks to the potential for accuracy out of this system. I have gotten excellent accuracy out of the CETME I built when using good quality ammunition and careful trigger control. It probably also helps that my parts kit came with a brand new Spanish barrel.

                                                                                                                                   The G-3 obviously has a good history of being used in the cold and wet of Scandinavia, and the hot, dry and dusty environments of the Near and Middle-East. I've read that it can have problems in jungle environments, probably because the rollers could corrode or the flutes in the chamber clog more easily with carbon build-up, but its widespread use in Latin America and Africa seem to belie that. Conversely, the FAL has a poor reputation in desert environments, as the Israelis found out, but has widely served throughout South America and Sub-Saharan Africa without major issue.

                                                                                                                                   As discussed above, while not as easy to break down and clean as the AR, neither is it difficult. The ability to remove the rear stock and bolt carrier allows for easy access to and cleaning of the breach and barrel of the weapon.

                                                                                                                                   Like all .308 battle rifles, the CETME/G-3 style rifles are heavy--almost as heavy as an M1 Garand which had a reputation as a heavy weapon. The ammunition is also heavy, which means that you cannot carry as much of it as you could of 5.56 or 7.62x39. For instance, assuming a fighting load of 180 rounds, the weight of magazines and ammunition for the AR15 would be about 6 lbs, while that for 7.62x51 would be nearly 15 lbs., or more than twice as much.

                                                                                                                                     The ergonomics are not as great as could be hoped although the general layout is similar to the AR system: the trigger, as I've already discussed, is poor (although my experience leads me to believe that the CETME is slightly better than the HK); and the magazine release button is hard to reach. Another problem is that the rifle doesn't have a bolt hold-open. Because of this, I would seriously consider putting a tracer as the next to last round and plan on reloading when I see the tracer, although this too has its downsides, not the least that it can create a fire hazard. Also,  the cocking is hard and requires a long reach; although it is, at least, on the left side of the rifle. However, because of its location, you are out of luck if, for some reason, you need to use your right hand to cock the weapon.

                                                                                                                                   On the plus side, the selector is, at least for me, easy to reach, and if you have rifle with the paddle-mag release, it can easily be accessed by either hand; although that is using the standard lower and not the Navy lower.

                                                                                                                                     I don't really like the balance of the CETME/HK rifle compared to other combat rifles. I'm not sure how to really describe it, other than it just doesn't seem to come as quickly and easily to the shoulder, or swung around to a different point of aim, as other combat rifles. Mullin, I would point out, also thought the same of the G3.

                                                                                                                                    The sights on both the CETME and G-3 are not all that great, although a vast improvement on most military rifles up until that time. But they are not as good as the sights for the M14 or FAL in my opinion, or even the standard AR sights. For one thing, the open notch sight for 100 meters or less is so close to the eye that it is blurry and mostly unusable. That type of open sight works well when placed at the rear of the barrel or front of the receiver, but the open design was never intended to be used close to the eye. I generally forgo using the open sight and use the 200 meter peep sight instead. The only time the open sight might be useful is for short-range snap shooting when you could primarily rely on the front sight blade.

                                                                                                                                    Because of the shape of the stock, optics will be too high to use while maintaining a good cheek weld. A company called Cherokee Accessories makes (or made) a cheek piece to fit on the CETME or HK stocks that works very well for when using a scope, yet is easily removed if you need to switch to iron sights.

                                                                                                                                    If you are interested in reloading, the CETME/HK system is not for you. These rifles throw the brass into the next county, or close enough. (My CETME will easily throw brass 20 feet or more). For that matter, I am leery of using it at a shooting range for that reason--it will be pummeling people to the right of you with spent casings.

                                                                                                                                    In short, the CETME/G-3 system has a variety of pluses and minuses. For the prepper, it offers a .308 battle rifle at costs competitive with AR style .308s (the PTR model) or is much less expensive (the Century C308). And it is very much less expensive than other modern .308 designs. (The SCAR 17s, for instance, retails for over $3,000). Unlike the FAL or the M1A, magazines for the CETME/G-3 are inexpensive--the HK aluminum magazines can be had for just a few dollars each and sometimes less. This makes it inexpensive to stock pile magazines. The CETME/HK is about the same weight as the FAL or M1A, but a bit shorter overall. Compared to 5.56 or 7.62x39 weapons, on the other hand, it is large, and heavy, and the cartridges it uses are heavy with relatively hard recoil compared to calibers like the 5.56 and 7.62x39.

                                                                                                                                   So that brings me to the issue of where these rifles might fit into your preparations. Because of the size of the rifles, both dimensionally and in weight, and the recoil (slower follow up) they are not CQB weapons. The 7.62x51 round was intended for use in fields and woods, and that is where this rifle would excel. In dense vegetation (e.g., jungle) or urban terrain, or inside your house, you would probably be better off with a smaller, lighter 5.56 NATO or 7.62x39 rifle. I think that even for general control of predators in and around a rural homestead, you would be better off with a lighter rifle, even if it was chambered in .308 or a comparable caliber. And, of course, the weight (especially with optics) would make these miserable to have to pack for a long distance.In any event, the lack of a bolt hold open and the awkward cocking arrangement makes this a slower weapon to reload--something that, for me, would eliminate it as a primary choice for a defensive rifle.

                                                                                                                                    I think that this would be an excellent rifle for a designated marksman in a group if that group were big enough to have such a specialist. An accurate CETME or HK outfitted with a scope would give such group the ability to engage distant targets or targets behind barriers. In this regard, it might be possible to pick up some armor piercing ammunition intended for the .30-06, pull the bullets, and reload it for use in a .308 rifle.

                                                                                                                              Sources and Additional Reading: