Wednesday, December 6, 2017

December 6, 2017 -- A Quick Run Around the Web

"Winter Survival Cooking" -- Survival Russia (14 min.)

        The classic example of the bystander effect is the murder of Kitty Genovese in New York City in 1964, where numerous witnesses allegedly failed to render assistance and ignored screams for help from Genovese who stabbed and severely wounded by her attacker, who then left because he thought her cries for help would draw attention, then later returned and killed Genovese. The story was sensationalized by The New York Times, and, true to form, was later revealed to have grossly misreported and misrepresented the facts. In fact, when The New York Times came clean in 2016, it reported:
While there was no question that the attack occurred, and that some neighbors ignored cries for help, the portrayal of 38 witnesses as fully aware and unresponsive was erroneous. The article grossly exaggerated the number of witnesses and what they had perceived. None saw the attack in its entirety. Only a few had glimpsed parts of it, or recognized the cries for help. Many thought they had heard lovers or drunks quarreling. There were two attacks, not three. And afterward, two people did call the police. A 70-year-old woman ventured out and cradled the dying victim in her arms until they arrived. Ms. Genovese died on the way to a hospital.
Thus, it is, in fact, a very poor example as to the bystander effect because people had indeed heard her initial cries for help and called the police. But Genovese had made her way into the vestibule at the back entrance of the apartment building, and so was no longer visible. (The police did not initially respond, thinking that it was a domestic dispute). When her attacker returned and found her, she was no longer in view or hearing of bystanders. Nevertheless, her final cries were heard by a neighbor who found her and tried to help her, and police were called. Unfortunately, as noted earlier, Genovese died en route to the hospital.
        Of course, not everyone stands by. Some choose to be heroes. One conspicuous example of this is Arland D. Williams, Jr., a passenger aboard Air Florida Flight 90, which crashed on take-off into the Potomac River on January 13, 1982. 78 people died in the crash. Williams was one of the few survivors. What is notable is that he refused to be rescued, instead repeatedly passing the rescue loop dangling from a helicopter to other survivors, until he was finally overcome by the cold water. He posthumously received the Carnegie Medal. The latter article observes:
        Because only pure, spontaneous do-gooders are eligible for the Carnegie Medal (not professional lifesavers or protective parents), the Carnegie archives are now a historical record of people who really shouldn't be heroes.
            And so, after sifting through more than a century's worth of Carnegie case studies, three intriguing factors snap into focus.
               1. Lots of guys are risking their lives: Since 1904 the Carnegie Commission has seen over 80,000 cases of extreme heroism.
                 2. "Guys" is exactly the right word; nine out of every 10 Carnegie heroes have been men. That means about 800 men are hurtling themselves into danger every year. And there's no telling how many other men are risking their lives with no recognition at all.
                  3. If you want a Carnegie Medal, prepare to die trying. Heroism is a lethal business; during a typical 5-year stretch, nearly one in four Carnegie Medals was bestowed upon a corpse. ...
            Although I can't find the article now, I remember reading that there was another factor at play: a disproportionate number of the people that receive the medal were raised in small towns. In any event, when there is violence, it helps if the bystander is armed.
              The panels we had available were a Gall’s Lite level IIA, CATI level IIIA, and two groin protectors from IBA armor, which are approximately equivalent to level IIIA. This is, of course, a great deal more than any person is likely to be wearing at one time so if it can’t stop the threat, it seems safe to conclude that soft armor is ineffective against rifles under any reasonable conditions.
                For the ammunition, the author indicates that he chose the ".300 AAC Sellier & Bellot 147 gr FMJ because it is significantly slower than many other rifle rounds." And the results?
                  The results are pretty conclusive. As you can see in the high speed, the bullet slammed through all four armor panels, six inches of ballistic gel, and five gallon jugs of water. That means that it didn’t just barely get through; it had a great deal of hate left inside it, even after slicing through all that armor. 
                  Here’s a look at WalletHub’s Top 10 safest cities for 2017:

                  1. Nashua, NH
                  2, South Burlington, VT
                  3. Warwick, RI
                  4. Columbia, MD
                  5. Gilbert, AZ
                  6. Fargo, ND
                  7. Lewiston, ME
                  8. Plano, TX
                  9. Portland, ME
                  10. Brownsville, TX 
                  Here’s a look at WalletHub’s LEAST safest cities for 2017:

                  173. Jackson, MS
                  174. Baton Rouge, LA
                  175. Chattanooga, TN
                  176. Orlando, FL
                  177. Little Rock, AR
                  178. Detroit MI
                  179. Oklahoma City, OK
                  180. San Bernardino, CA
                  181. St. Louis, MO
                  182. Fort Lauderdale, FL

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